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Once we have a thermometer, we can easily show that heating an object causes its temperature to rise. Perhaps then temperature is the same thing as heat. Let’s test this idea and measure the temperature rise produced by a simple heat-producing chemical reaction like burning methane. As an example, we burn 1.0 g of methane gas and use the heat released to raise the temperature of 1.000 kg of water (essentially 1.0 L of water). We observe that the water temperature rises by exactly 13.3 °C. This result is constant for this experiment. By performing this experiment repeatedly, we always find that the temperature of this quantity of water increases by 13.3 °C. Therefore, the same quantity of heat must always be produced by reaction of this quantity of methane. As such, it is very tempting to say that the amount of heat released by burning 1.0 g of methane is 13.3 °C. If this is true, then every time 1.0 g of methane is burned, a temperature rise of 13.3 °C should be observed.

However, if we burn 1.0 g of methane to heat 500 g of water instead, we observe a temperature rise of 26.6 °C. And if we burn 1.0 g of methane to heat 1.000 kg of iron, we observe a temperature rise of 123 °C. Therefore, the temperature rise observed depends on the quantity of material heated as well as what the substance is that is heated. Our temptation has led us astray. 13.3 °C is not an appropriate measure of this quantity of heat, since we cannot say that the burning of 1.0 g of methane "produces 13.3 °C of heat." Such a statement is clearly nonsense, so we must keep the concepts of temperature and heat distinct.

Observation 2: heat and heat capacity, and reaction energy

Although temperature and heat are not the same concept, our data do tell us that they are related somehow. Let’s look at some additional data. We know that if we burn 1.0 g of methane, the temperature rise in 1.0 kg of water is 13.3 °C or the temperature rise for 0.5 kg of water is 26.6 °C. What if we burn 2.0 g of methane? Experimentally, the temperature rise in 1.0 kg of water is 26.6 °C or the temperature rise for 0.5 kg of water is 53.2 °C. Look at those data carefully. We can reasonably assume that burning twice as much methane generates twice as much heat. And we see that it produces twice the temperature change of a fixed amount of water. This tells us that the temperature change for a fixed amount of water is proportional to the heat absorbed by the water.

Does this work for other materials? Earlier, we used the heat from burning 1.0 g of methane to heat 1.0 kg of iron, and we saw a temperature increase of 123 °C. If we burn 2.0 g of methane to heat 1.0 kg of iron, the temperature increase is found to double to 246 °C. Again, the temperature change is proportional to the heat absorbed. Let’s put this in symbols. If we call the quantity of heat q, and ΔT is the temperature rise produced by this heat, then we have observed that

q = C ΔT

where C is a proportionality constant. We need to be careful with this equation, though, because our data say that the relationship between q and ΔT depends on what material is heated (water or iron) and how much is heated (1.0 kg or 0.5 kg). So C depends on these same things: what material is heated and how much of the material is there. C is therefore a property of each material and is called the “heat capacity” of the material.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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