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Once we have a thermometer, we can easily show that heating an object causes its temperature to rise. Perhaps then temperature is the same thing as heat. Let’s test this idea and measure the temperature rise produced by a simple heat-producing chemical reaction like burning methane. As an example, we burn 1.0 g of methane gas and use the heat released to raise the temperature of 1.000 kg of water (essentially 1.0 L of water). We observe that the water temperature rises by exactly 13.3 °C. This result is constant for this experiment. By performing this experiment repeatedly, we always find that the temperature of this quantity of water increases by 13.3 °C. Therefore, the same quantity of heat must always be produced by reaction of this quantity of methane. As such, it is very tempting to say that the amount of heat released by burning 1.0 g of methane is 13.3 °C. If this is true, then every time 1.0 g of methane is burned, a temperature rise of 13.3 °C should be observed.

However, if we burn 1.0 g of methane to heat 500 g of water instead, we observe a temperature rise of 26.6 °C. And if we burn 1.0 g of methane to heat 1.000 kg of iron, we observe a temperature rise of 123 °C. Therefore, the temperature rise observed depends on the quantity of material heated as well as what the substance is that is heated. Our temptation has led us astray. 13.3 °C is not an appropriate measure of this quantity of heat, since we cannot say that the burning of 1.0 g of methane "produces 13.3 °C of heat." Such a statement is clearly nonsense, so we must keep the concepts of temperature and heat distinct.

Observation 2: heat and heat capacity, and reaction energy

Although temperature and heat are not the same concept, our data do tell us that they are related somehow. Let’s look at some additional data. We know that if we burn 1.0 g of methane, the temperature rise in 1.0 kg of water is 13.3 °C or the temperature rise for 0.5 kg of water is 26.6 °C. What if we burn 2.0 g of methane? Experimentally, the temperature rise in 1.0 kg of water is 26.6 °C or the temperature rise for 0.5 kg of water is 53.2 °C. Look at those data carefully. We can reasonably assume that burning twice as much methane generates twice as much heat. And we see that it produces twice the temperature change of a fixed amount of water. This tells us that the temperature change for a fixed amount of water is proportional to the heat absorbed by the water.

Does this work for other materials? Earlier, we used the heat from burning 1.0 g of methane to heat 1.0 kg of iron, and we saw a temperature increase of 123 °C. If we burn 2.0 g of methane to heat 1.0 kg of iron, the temperature increase is found to double to 246 °C. Again, the temperature change is proportional to the heat absorbed. Let’s put this in symbols. If we call the quantity of heat q, and ΔT is the temperature rise produced by this heat, then we have observed that

q = C ΔT

where C is a proportionality constant. We need to be careful with this equation, though, because our data say that the relationship between q and ΔT depends on what material is heated (water or iron) and how much is heated (1.0 kg or 0.5 kg). So C depends on these same things: what material is heated and how much of the material is there. C is therefore a property of each material and is called the “heat capacity” of the material.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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