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Chapter [link] introduced the problem of designing l p FIR filters, along with several design scenarios and their corresponding design algorithms. This chapter considers the design of l p IIR filters and examines the similarities and differences compared to l p FIR filter design. It was mentioned in [link] that l p FIR design involves a polynomial approximation. The problem becomes more complicated in the case of IIR filters as the approximation problem is a ratio of two polynomials. In fact, the case of FIR polynomial approximation is a special form of IIR rational approximation where the denominator is equal to 1.

Infinite Impulse Response (or recursive ) digital filters constitute an important analysis tool in many areas of science (such as signal processing, statistics and biology). The problem of designing IIR filters has been the object of extensive study. Several approaches are typically used in designing IIR filters, but a general procedure follows: given a desired filter specification (which may consist of an impulse response or a frequency specification), a predetermined approximation error criterion is optimized. Although one of the most widely used error criteria in Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters is the least-squares criterion (which in most scenarios merely requires the solution of a linear system), least-squares ( l 2 ) approximation for IIR filters requires an optimization over an infinite number of filter coefficients (in the time domain approximation case). Furthermore, optimizing for an IIR frequency response leads to a rational (nonlinear) approximation problem rather than the polynomial problem of FIR design.

As discussed in the previous chapter, a successful IRLS-based l p algorithm depends to a large extent in the solution of a weighted l 2 problem. One could argue that one of the most important aspects contrasting FIR and IIR l p filter design lies in the l 2 optimization step. This chapter presents the theoretical and computational issues involved in the design of both l 2 and l p IIR filters and explores several approaches taken to handle the resulting nonlinear l 2 optimization problem. [link] introduces the IIR filter formulation and the nonlinear least-squares design problem. [link] presents the l 2 problem more formally, covering relevant methods as a manner of background and to lay down a framework for the approach proposed in this work. Some of the methods covered here date back to the 1960's, yet others are the result of current active work by a number of research groups; the approach employed in this work is described in [link] . Finally, [link] considers different design problems concerning IIR filters in an l p sense, including IIR versions of the complex, frequency-varying and magnitude filter design problems as well as the proposed algorithms and their corresponding results.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Iterative design of l_p digital filters. OpenStax CNX. Dec 07, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11383/1.1
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