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Use of a venn diagram

We can also use Venn diagrams to check whether events are dependent or independent.

Independent events

Events are said to be independent if the result or outcome of one event does not affect the result or outcome of the other event. So P(A/C)=P(A), where P(A/C) represents the probability of event A after event C has occured.

Dependent events

Two events are dependent if the outcome of one event is affected by the outcome of the other event i.e. P ( A / C ) P ( A )

. Also note that P ( A / C ) = P ( A C ) P ( C ) . For example, we can draw a Venn diagram and a contingency table to illustrate and analyse the following example.

A school decided that its uniform needed upgrading. The colours on offer were beige or blue or beige and blue. 40% of the school wanted beige, 55% wanted blue and 15% said a combination would be fine. Are the two events independent?

  1. Beige Not Beige Totals
    Blue 0,15 0,4 0,55
    Not Blue 0,25 0,2 0,35
    Totals 0,40 0,6 1
  2. P(Blue)=0,4, P(Beige)=0,55, P(Both)=0,15, P(Neither)=0,20

    Probability of choosing beige after blue is:

    P ( B e i g e / B l u e ) = P ( B e i g e B l u e ) P ( B l u e ) = 0 , 15 0 , 55 = 0 , 27
  3. Since P ( B e i g e / B l u e ) P ( B e i g e ) the events are statistically dependent.

Applications of probability theory

Two major applications of probability theory in everyday life are in risk assessment and in trade on commodity markets. Governments typically apply probability methods in environmental regulation where it is called “pathway analysis”, and are often measuring well-being using methods that are stochastic in nature, and choosing projects to undertake based on statistical analyses of their probable effect on the population as a whole. It is not correct to say that statistics are involved in the modelling itself, as typically the assessments of risk are one-time and thus require more fundamental probability models, e.g. “the probability of another 9/11”. A law of small numbers tends to apply to all such choices and perception of the effect of such choices, which makes probability measures a political matter.

A good example is the effect of the perceived probability of any widespread Middle East conflict on oil prices - which have ripple effects in the economy as a whole. An assessment by a commodity trade that a war is more likely vs. less likely sends prices up or down, and signals other traders of that opinion. Accordingly, the probabilities are not assessed independently nor necessarily very rationally. The theory of behavioral finance emerged to describe the effect of such groupthink on pricing, on policy, and on peace and conflict.

It can reasonably be said that the discovery of rigorous methods to assess and combine probability assessments has had a profound effect on modern society. A good example is the application of game theory, itself based strictly on probability, to the Cold War and the mutual assured destruction doctrine. Accordingly, it may be of some importance to most citizens to understand how odds and probability assessments are made, and how they contribute to reputations and to decisions, especially in a democracy.

Another significant application of probability theory in everyday life is reliability. Many consumer products, such as automobiles and consumer electronics, utilize reliability theory in the design of the product in order to reduce the probability of failure. The probability of failure is also closely associated with the product's warranty.

End of chapter exercises

  1. In each of the following contingency tables give the expected numbers for the events to be perfectly independent and decide if the events are independent or dependent.
    1. Brown eyes Not Brown eyes Totals
      Black hair 50 30 80
      Red hair 70 80 150
      Totals 120 110 230
    2. Point A Point B Totals
      Busses left late 15 40 55
      Busses left on time 25 20 45
      Totals 40 60 100
    3. Durban Bloemfontein Totals
      Liked living there 130 30 160
      Did not like living there 140 200 340
      Totals 270 230 500
    4. Multivitamin A Multivitamin B Totals
      Improvement in health 400 300 700
      No improvement in health 140 120 260
      Totals 540 420 960
  2. A study was undertaken to see how many people in Port Elizabeth owned either a Volkswagen or a Toyota. 3% owned both, 25% owned a Toyota and 60% owned a Volkswagen. Draw a contingency table to show all events and decide if car ownership is independent.
  3. Jane invested in the stock market. The probability that she will not lose all her money is 0,32. What is the probability that she will lose all her money? Explain.
  4. If D and F are mutually exclusive events, with P(D ' )=0,3 and P(D or F)=0,94, find P(F).
  5. A car sales person has pink, lime-green and purple models of car A and purple, orange and multicolour models of car B. One dark night a thief steals a car.
    1. What is the experiment and sample space?
    2. Draw a Venn diagram to show this.
    3. What is the probability of stealing either a model of A or a model of B?
    4. What is the probability of stealing both a model of A and a model of B?
  6. The probability of Event X is 0,43 and the probability of Event Y is 0,24. The probability of both occuring together is 0,10. What is the probability that X or Y will occur (this inculdes X and Y occuring simultaneously)?
  7. P(H)=0,62, P(J)=0,39 and P(H and J)=0,31. Calculate:
    1. P(H ' )
    2. P(H or J)
    3. P(H ' or J ' )
    4. P(H ' or J)
    5. P(H ' and J ' )
  8. The last ten letters of the alphabet were placed in a hat and people were asked to pick one of them. Event D is picking a vowel, Event E is picking a consonant and Event F is picking the last four letters. Calculate the following probabilities:
    1. P(F ' )
    2. P(F or D)
    3. P(neither E nor F)
    4. P(D and E)
    5. P(E and F)
    6. P(E and D ' )
  9. At Dawnview High there are 400 Grade 12's. 270 do Computer Science, 300 do English and 50 do Typing. All those doing Computer Science do English, 20 take Computer Science and Typing and 35 take English and Typing. Using a Venn diagram calculate the probability that a pupil drawn at random will take:
    1. English, but not Typing or Computer Science
    2. English but not Typing
    3. English and Typing but not Computer Science
    4. English or Typing

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Other chapter Q/A we can ask
Moahammedashifali Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 11 maths. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11243/1.3
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