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There are two types of food production: traditional agriculture and industrialized agriculture . Industrialized agriculture is known as high input agriculture because it utilizes large amounts commercial fertilizers, pesticides, water and fossil fuels. Large fields of single crops ( monoculture ) are planted, and the plants are selectively bred to produce high yields. The large amounts of grain produced by this method also foster the production of large numbers of livestock animals in feedlots. Most of the food produced by industrialized methods is sold by farmers for income. This type of food production is most common in developed countries because of the technology and high expenses involved. However, large industrialized plantations specializing in a single cash crop (e.g. a crop specifically raised for income such as bananas, cocoa, coffee) are found in some developing countries.

Traditional agriculture is the most widely practiced form of food production, occurring mostly in developing countries. It can be classified further as either traditional subsistence or traditional intensive agriculture. The differences between the two involve the relative amounts of resources input and food produced. Subsistence agriculture uses only human and animal labor and only produces enough food for the farmer's family.

Traditional, intensive agriculture utilizes more human and animal labor, fertilizers and irrigated water. It may also involve growing methods such as intercropping designed to maintain soil fertility. Intercropping involves planting two crops simultaneously (e.g., a nitrogen-fixing legume crop with a grain crop). The increased production resulting from the more intensive methods provides enough food for the farmer's family and for selling to others in the local area.

Rangelands tend to be grasslands in semiarid to arid regions that are not suited to growing crops without irrigation. The grasses provide food for grazing animals such as cattle and sheep. These animals not only provide meat for food, but are also a valuable source of leather and wool. In regions with regular rainfall, livestock can be raised in set areas of open range. In more arid climates, nomadic herding of livestock may be necessary in order to find sufficient supplies of grass.

Overgrazing of rangeland by livestock can result in desertification of the area. In developed countries, livestock raised on rangeland are often fattened with grain in feedlots before slaughter.

The ocean provides the biggest location of fisheries. Commercial methods used to harvest these fisheries depend upon the types of fish (e.g. surface dwelling, bottom dwelling) being produced and their tendency to form schools. Trawlers drag nets along the ocean bottom to catch bottom dwelling (demersal) fish such as cod and shellfish such as shrimp. Large schools of surface dwelling (pelagic) fish, such as tuna, are caught by purse-seine fishing in which a net surrounds them and then closes like a drawstring purse. Drift nets up to tens of kilometers long hang like curtains below the surface and entangle almost anything that comes in contact with it. The major problem with all of these fishing methods is that they tend to kill large numbers of unwanted fish and marine mammals that are inadvertently caught.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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