# 0.10 Writing mathml  (Page 3/3)

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Step 5 : Looking at the equation, it is easy to note that we need to have two fraction term with nominator and denominator. Thus, copy the block to display vertical term i.e. copy and paste “mfrac” code lines 9 to12 and modify according to the requirement(new lines 17 to 20). Copy and paste code lines 13 to 16 and modify as required (new lines 21 to 24). Finally copy and paste code lines 9 to 12 again as shown(new lines 25 to 28).

1: <m:math display="block"> 2: <m:mi> x </m:mi> 3: <m:mo> = </m:mo> 4: <m:mo> [ </m:mo> 5: <m:mn> 3200 </m:mn> 6: <m:mo> ( </m:mo> 7: <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> 8: <m:mo> - </m:mo> 9: <m:mfrac> 10: <m:mn> 5 </m:mn> 11: <m:mn> 100 </m:mn> 12: </m:mfrac> 13: <m:mo> ) </m:mo> 14: <m:mo> ( </m:mo> 15: <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> 16: <m:mo> + </m:mo> 17: 9: <m:mfrac> 18: 10: <m:mn> 10 </m:mn> 19: 11: <m:mn> 100 </m:mn> 20: 12: </m:mfrac> 21: 13: <m:mo> ) </m:mo> 22: 14: <m:mo> ( </m:mo> 23: 15: <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> 24: 16: <m:mo> + </m:mo> 25: 9: <m:mfrac> 26: 10: <m:mn> 5 </m:mn> 27: 11: <m:mn> 100 </m:mn> 28: 12: </m:mfrac> </m:math>

What you have coded till now : $x=\left[3200\left(1-\frac{5}{100}\right)\left(1+\frac{10}{100}\right)\left(1+\frac{5}{100}$

What is to be coded ultimately : $x=\left[32000\left(1-\genfrac{}{}{0.2ex}{}{5}{100}\right)\left(1+\genfrac{}{}{0.2ex}{}{10}{100}\right)\left(1+\genfrac{}{}{0.2ex}{}{\frac{25}{2}}{100}\right)\right]$

Step 6 : Note that last “mfrac” display requires another “mfrac” implementation. Its numerator itself is a “mfrac” display. Thus, we would require to change the line 26 placed near bottom with a block of “mfrac” codes that shall display “25/2”. For this we replace code line 26 with code block consisting of code lines 9 to 12. In order to make this block as the numerator of the parent “mfrac” element, we need to enclose this block with “mrow” element so that “mfrac” element considers the block as one argument. Change the “mo’ content (lines 10 and 11 at the bottom) to reflect the ratio as 25/2. Finally, add a closing parenthesis and a bracket at the end (lines 29 and 30) as shown.

13: <m:mo> ) </m:mo> 14: <m:mo> ( </m:mo> 15: <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> 16: <m:mo> + </m:mo> 17: 9: <m:mfrac> 18: 10: <m:mn> 10 </m:mn> 19: 11: <m:mn> 100 </m:mn> 20: 12: </m:mfrac> 21: 13: <m:mo> ) </m:mo> 22: 14: <m:mo> ( </m:mo> 23: 15: <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> 24: 16: <m:mo> + </m:mo> 25: 9: <m:mfrac> ---- <m:mrow> 9: <m:mfrac> 10: <m:mn> 25 </m:mn> 11: <m:mn> 2 </m:mn> 12: </m:mfrac> </m:mrow> ----- 27: 11: <m:mn> 100 </m:mn> 28: 12: </m:mfrac> 29: <m:mo> ) </m:mo> 30: <m:mo> ] </m:mo> </m:math>

Step 7 : Save the file as test.xml. The code (after renumbering for reference purpose) at this stage looks like :

13: <m:mo> ) </m:mo> 14: <m:mo> ( </m:mo> 15: <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> 16: <m:mo> + </m:mo> 17: <m:mfrac> 18: <m:mn> 10 </m:mn> 19: <m:mn> 100 </m:mn> 20: </m:mfrac> 21: <m:mo> ) </m:mo> 22: <m:mo> ( </m:mo> 23: <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> 24: <m:mo> + </m:mo> 25: <m:mfrac> 26: <m:mrow> 27: <m:mfrac> 28: <m:mn> 25 </m:mn> 29: <m:mn> 2 </m:mn> 30: </m:mfrac> 31: </m:mrow> 32: <m:mn> 100 </m:mn> 33: </m:mfrac> 34: <m:mo> ) </m:mo> 35: <m:mo> ] </m:mo> </m:math>

What you have coded till now : $x=\left[3200\left(1-\frac{5}{100}\right)\left(1+\frac{10}{100}\right)\left(1+\frac{5}{100}\right)\right]$

What is to be coded ultimately : $x=\left[32000\left(1-\genfrac{}{}{0.2ex}{}{5}{100}\right)\left(1+\genfrac{}{}{0.2ex}{}{10}{100}\right)\left(1+\genfrac{}{}{0.2ex}{}{\frac{25}{2}}{100}\right)\right]$

Step 8 : Comparing what we have achieved so far and what is the expected, we need few tweaking here and there. First we see that the brackets have not grown to the vertical height of the terms, composing the equation. In order to do this, we club the part of equation in the brackets within “mrow” tags. Thus, we insert “mrow” tag before line 4 and at the end of the code after line 35. Also, the bars of the three central "mfrac" elements have to be distinguished from the nested one. We use "linethickness" attribute on "mfrac" element and set the same to "medium". The final code and display are shown in the example.

## Indices element : mroot

<m:math display="block"> <m:mi> x </m:mi> <m:mo> = </m:mo> <m:mrow> <m:mo> [ </m:mo> <m:mn> 32000 </m:mn> <m:mo> ( </m:mo> <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> <m:mo> - </m:mo> <m:mfrac linethickness="2"> <m:mn> 5 </m:mn> <m:mn> 100 </m:mn> </m:mfrac> <m:mo> ) </m:mo> <m:mo> ( </m:mo> <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mfrac linethickness="2"> <m:mn> 10 </m:mn> <m:mn> 100 </m:mn> </m:mfrac> <m:mo> ) </m:mo> <m:mo> ( </m:mo> <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mfrac linethickness="2"> <m:mrow> <m:mfrac> <m:mn> 25 </m:mn> <m:mn> 2 </m:mn> </m:mfrac> </m:mrow> <m:mn> 100 </m:mn> </m:mfrac> <m:mo> ) </m:mo> <m:mo> ] </m:mo> </m:mrow> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

$x=\left[32000\left(1-\genfrac{}{}{0.2ex}{}{5}{100}\right)\left(1+\genfrac{}{}{0.2ex}{}{10}{100}\right)\left(1+\genfrac{}{}{0.2ex}{}{\frac{25}{2}}{100}\right)\right]$

#### Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A primer in mathml. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10345/1.16
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