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Some sources will always have greater appeal than others—Vergil will always attract more attention than your random nineteenth-century dissertation in Latin—but it also recognizes that much, indeed most, of our new interest in Greek and Latin may emerge from improved access to a rich body of sources that were physically accessible in only a few research libraries and archives. Even when sources outside of the traditional canon were physically available, their intellectual context and their idiosyncratic language made them intellectually inaccessible to all but those few readers who had in fact developed an advanced knowledge of Greek and Latin.

Students of Greek and Latin need to think about breadth as well as depth. We can treat our core authors as corpora on whom we can continue to lavish an extraordinary amount of labor. Many of the most heavily studied authors are relatively small: the Homeric Epics, Greek Drama, Catullus, Vergil, and Horace constitute approximately one million words. Authors such as Plato (600,000 words), Aristotle (1.1 million words), Cicero (1.1 million words), and Livy (570,000 words) are, however, considerably larger and do not lend themselves so readily to the same intensive methods that we can apply to the 35,000 words of Aeschylus. The TLL began work in 1894 on its ten million words from the most heavily studied Latin authors. With a staff of twenty Latinists, the TLL has completed approximately two-thirds of its task. As we move beyond the classical corpus into much larger collections where we lack the editions, commentaries, indices, specialized lexica and other scholarly infrastructure available for the heavily studied authors, we need different methods.

Digital philology and, indeed, much of modern editing, must depend upon two new disciplines with deceptively similar names, often lumped together but complementary in principle and separate in practice: computational and corpus linguistics.

We need computational methods as we confront tasks that overwhelm manual methods. This issue is more thoroughly explored in Bamman and Crane 2009. As we confront the challenge of editing billions of words, we need editors who can apply automated methods, measure the results by analyzing randomly sampled subsets of the data, and provide large bodies of textual data, of known accuracy, useful for most automated purposes and ready for others to refine, in whole or in part, as time allows and interest dictates.

But important as computation may be, the most important new discipline for classical—and any philology—is corpus linguistics. For a good overview of the relationship between corpus linguistics, computational linguistics and historical corpora, see Lüdeling and Zeldes 2008. All students of historical languages are, in some sense, corpus linguists, for they are studying corpora that are fixed—we may recover new papyri and inscriptions, but the surviving linguistic record, whether discovered or not, can never expand.

Editing in classics

Editors of classical texts have for the most part focused on the challenge of reconstructing an original copy text. All scribes make errors and even relatively small error rates add up in a single manuscript. As texts are copied, they accumulate new errors. In some cases, relatively large texts survive with relatively few obvious errors—the 600,000 words of Plato present relatively few problems. In other cases, much shorter texts can become garbled in transmission, especially when only a few or even simply one manuscript survive—the 35,000 words in the seven surviving plays of Aeschylus are notoriously problematic. When print allowed scholars to publish hundreds and thousands of identical copies, transmission stabilized and scholars set out to undo the damage. Classicists published thousands of editions from the editions principes of the late fifteenth century through the great systematic editions of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. For more on the tradition of creating critical editions in classics see Bodard and Garcés 2008 and Monella 2008.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Online humanities scholarship: the shape of things to come. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11199/1.1
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