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2) Enabling new research . Every project represented in this workshop is expanding the frontiers of research beyond what was possible in print. I would highlight a project now getting under way that attacks a very traditional goal but is proceeding in a way that is only possible through the combination of advanced automated methods, very powerful computing and very large collections. The history of Latin is hardly a new subject, but we can place this project on a radically new footing. David A. Smith, who holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science and a B.A. in Classics, is one of the principal investigators for a four-year, $2.5 million project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). #0910165: Collaborative Research: Mining a Million Scanned Books: Linguistic and Structure Analysis, Fast Expanded Search, and Improved OCR. He has downloaded more than 1.5 million books from the Internet Archive and from these has identified twelve thousand whose language is listed as being Latin. The resulting collection contains approximately1.8 billion words of Latin—almost two hundred times as much Latin as the ten-million–word database on which the TLL has labored for more than a century. If and when we should have access to the twelve million books that Google has already scanned, the collection of available Latin will only increase. Library metadata is, however, rough—we cannot, for example, distinguish the nineteenth-century Latin introduction from an accompanying edition of Cicero, and many books are cited by the date of the published edition (e.g., 1879 in Paris) rather than that of their original creation (e.g., 1623 in Leiden). There are multiple copies of the same author (e.g., ten editions of Horace). Organizing this rough assemblage will provide plenty of opportunity for advanced automated methods. Nevertheless, we now already have in hand the raw materials with which to rewrite the history of the Latin language over the course of two thousand years. Automated analysis with systematic sampling to evaluate error rates redefines the way in which we can conceptualize new research in this subject.

In print culture, Arabic speaking scholars of the Greco-Roman world had little access to, and less visibility within, the largely English, French, German and Italian publication space of classical scholarship. In a networked world where such knowledge bases as treebanks emerge as pre-eminent channels within which to publish interpretations of literary text, the first language of the scholar becomes less important. We are better positioned to establish new intellectual and collegial relationships across challenging barriers of space, language and culture.

3) Redefining who can contribute to scholarship . In this regard, Wikipedia remains an historic phenomenon because it has demonstrated a new mode of intellectual production—one that this philologist thought was at best implausible until Roy Rosenzweig confronted my prejudices with evidence and analysis. His arguments can be found in Rosenzweig 2006. Classicists had developed their own community-driven project with the Suda Online (SOL), (External Link) which has so far produced English translations for more than 27,000 entries from a large tenth-century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopedia of the ancient world. The SOL, however, mobilized professional scholars and included a fairly traditional editorial process. For an overview of the SOL and its editorial process, see Mahoney 2009. The most important project for Classical scholarship in the United States may be the Homer Multitext, because this project demonstrated not only what undergraduates could do in a very complex project but also the effect of participation in this project on their work and on their view of classics. The Homer Multitext defied my own personal expectations as to what undergraduates would do or would find interesting.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Online humanities scholarship: the shape of things to come. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11199/1.1
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