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There is nothing innovative in having undergraduates contribute to and then conduct research within a field—promising students in the sciences, for example, regularly begin working in laboratories, taking measurements or conducting technical procedures, and then develop experiments of their own. Classics is—or should be—a demanding field, but no more so than the sciences.

In the second half of the twentieth century, we developed courses and degrees in classical studies that removed or minimized the burden of mastering Greek and Latin. We are now in a position to create another path through the field, one that can be as challenging as any curriculum we have offered in the past but that also engages our students as collaborators.

6) The emerging digital environment can potentially allow editors to accomplish more with the same degree of effort . Word processing, high-resolution digital images, and email alone have changed the way in which editors can carry out their traditional tasks. The millions of dollars and euros invested in digital editing should have made traditional editorial practices faster and less expensive. The problem is, of course, that digital tools change what is possible and challenge us to redefine our tasks, making older models inappropriate—feature creep from one perspective, renaissance from another. Adding syntactic analyses for every word in a text, for example, should not significantly increase the overall editorial task—the real effort lies, or should lie, in thinking about each and every word in the text. If anything, editors should spend more time thinking about different interpretations for each sentence, knowing that they can publish these alternate interpretations in a form that can be visualized or analyzed.

Beyond simple calculations of time and money and the new questions we can ask, there is a chance that new scholarly instruments such as treebanks may allow us to make progress with thorny questions of reconstructing even our best-studied texts. We will certainly be able to frame arguments about various readings and conjectures when we have new and extended linguistic comparanda. Even if we avoid the idea of progress in reconstructing classical texts (and in this case, progress is a plausible category because in many cases we are trying to reconstruct a single source), we can at least provide new evidence with which to advance our discussions.

Three dimensions of change

The previous section described changes in the cost-benefit calculations that we as scholars make that bear upon the role of editing. This section shifts the focus and examines three dimensions by which to evaluate the current and emerging impact of digital scholarship. While I have selected several projects as exemplary for particular advances, I do not mean to imply that any one project only represents a single category.

1) Advancing established scholarship . Digital environments only exert long-term change if they first address the well-understood problems and aspirations of scholarship. The importance of this fact, or of the need to build digital infrastructures or virtual research environments that help scholars with both their “traditional tasks” as well as “cutting edge” scholarship has also been echoed in various discussions of humanities cyberinfrastructure; see for example Blanke 2010, Pybus and Kirkham 2009. Roger Bagnall’s piece on the rise of digital papyrology documents what is arguably the biggest success story within the digital humanities. Papyrologists from different institutions and nations have collaborated over a period of years to transform their core materials into shared digital collections and to create a functional digital environment for the shared editing of new texts. For more on this work, see the website for the “Integrating Digital Papyrology” project, (External Link) . Several factors are at play. Papyrologists have new material that they need to publish. The traditional audience is not huge and thus there are fewer problems with rights holders restricting open-access publication. Most of all, there is what Ulrich Wilcken (1862-1944) long ago phrased the amicitia papyrologorum , E. G. Turner, T. C. Skeat, and J. David Thomas, “Sir Harold Idris Bell,” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology , 53 (1967) 138. a distinctively and consciously collegial relationship among papyrologists and a determination to support each other and their field. The amicitia papyrologorum , imperfect and intermittent as it may be, is nevertheless an extraordinary achievement and has conferred upon papyrology a competitive advantage in the fierce Darwinian struggle of academic disciplines. The rise of Digital Papyrology both reflects and increases this advantage. Technology progress begins with our attitudes towards our colleagues and depends upon our ability to place some shared good above our quarrels and personal advantages.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Online humanities scholarship: the shape of things to come. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11199/1.1
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