<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Concept of vowel recognition

Vowel recognition is an interesting challenge because it applies system theory to our own physiology. Whenever we attempt to speak, the glottis - the part of the larynx containing the vocal cords - starts to vibrate. These vibrations can be modeled as white noise which become audible and coherent sounds as they pass through the vocal tract. Past experiments have repeatedly confirmed that the vocal tract can be treated as a linear, time-invariant system.

With this, we can proceed in one of three ways: we can model the system as having all zeros (moving average), all poles (autoregressive), or some combination of poles and zeros. Since we can only observe the output of the filter - the speech the escapes the vocal cavity - we choose to model the system as having only poles, because such a model has little dependence on the original input signal. With an autoregressive model, we can generate a transfer function to approximate the filter with a degree of precision proportional to the filter's parameter. It should be noted that a higher order model generally works better but is also more computationally expensive. Once we have the transfer function, we look at the frequency response and determine which frequencies the peaks occur. These frequencies are the formants and we can look at known formant charts to determine which vowel was spoken.

Identifying vowel formants

The term formant refers to peaks in the harmonic spectrum of a complex sound. You can see this spectrum by taking a Fourier transform and looking at the frequency response of the signal. Formants in the sound of the human voice are particularly important because they are essential components in the intelligibility of speech. The distinctness of the vowel sounds can be attributed to the differences in their first three formant frequencies. Producing different vowel sounds amounts to returning these formants within a general range of frequencies depending on the particular person.

Ah frequency response
Formants of an 'Ah' Sound (Adopted from HyperPhysics)

From the frequency response of the vowel formants, we can look at how the peaks of the frequency in the harmonic spectrum line up with the corresponding dark lines in the spectrogram. The dark areas are where the formants are and the graph show them at the same frequency.

specgram of ah sound
Spectrogram of the 'Ah' Sound

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Vowel recognition using formant analysis. OpenStax CNX. Dec 17, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11729/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Vowel recognition using formant analysis' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask