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F 2 A N m v 2 6 V

To calculate the pressure, we divide by the area A , to find that

P N m v 2 3 V

or, rearranged for comparison to Boyle's Law ,

P V N m v 2 3

Since we have assumed that the particles travel with constant speed v , then the right side of this equation is a constant. Therefore the product of pressure times volume, P V , is a constant, in agreement with Boyle's Law . Furthermore, the product P V is proportional to the number of particles, also in agreement with the Law of Combining Volumes . Therefore, the model we have developed to describe an ideal gas is consistent with ourexperimental observations.

We can draw two very important conclusions from this derivation. First, the inverse relationship observedbetween pressure and volume and the independence of this relationship on the type of gas analyzed are both due to the lackof interactions between gas particles. Second, the lack of interactions is in turn due to the great distances between gasparticles, a fact which will be true provided that the density of the gas is low.

Interpretation of temperature

The absence of temperature in the above derivation is notable. The other gas properties have all beenincorporated, yet we have derived an equation which omits temperature all together. The problem is that, as we discussed atlength above, the temperature was somewhat arbitrarily defined. In fact, it is not precisely clear what has been measured by thetemperature. We defined the temperature of a gas in terms of thevolume of mercury in a glass tube in contact with the gas. It is perhaps then no wonder that such a quantity does not show up in amechanical derivation of the gas properties.

On the other hand, the temperature does appear prominently in the Ideal Gas Law . Therefore, there must be a greater significance (and less arbitrariness) to the temperaturethan might have been expected. To discern this significance, we rewrite the last equation above in the form:

P V 2 3 N 1 2 m v 2

The last quantity in parenthesis can be recognized as the kinetic energy of an individual gas particle, and N 1 2 m v 2 must be the total kinetic energy ( KE ) of the gas. Therefore

P V 2 3 KE

Now we insert the Ideal Gas Law for P V to find that

KE 3 2 n R T

This is an extremely important conclusion, for it reveals the answer to the question of what property is measuredby the temperature. We see now that the temperature is a measure of the total kinetic energy of the gas. Thus, when we heat a gas,elevating its temperature, we are increasing the average kinetic energy of the gas particles, causing then to move, on average, morerapidly.

Analysis of deviations from the ideal gas law

We are at last in a position to understand the observations above of deviations from the Ideal Gas Law . The most important assumption of our model of the behavior of an idealgas is that the gas molecules do not interact. This allowed us to calculate the force imparted on the wall of the container due to asingle particle collision without worrying about where the other particles were. In order for a gas to disobey the Ideal Gas Law , the conditions must be such that this assumption isviolated.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, General chemistry ii. OpenStax CNX. Mar 25, 2005 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10262/1.2
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