# 0.1 The kinetic molecular theory  (Page 3/7)

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Therefore, it is a characteristic of a gas that the molecules are far apart from one another. In addition, thelower the density of the gas the farther apart the molecules must be, since the same number of molecules occupies a larger volume atlower density.

We reinforce this conclusion by noting that liquids and solids are virtually incompressible, whereas gases areeasily compressed. This is easily understood if the molecules in a gas are very far apart from one another, in contrast to the liquidand solid where the molecules are so close as to be in contact with one another.

We add this conclusion to the observations in and that the pressure exerted by a gas depends only on the number of particles in the gas and is independent of the typeof particles in the gas, provided that the density is low enough. This requires that the gas particles be far enough apart. Weconclude that the Ideal Gas Law holds true because there is sufficient distance between the gas particles that the identity ofthe gas particles becomes irrelevant.

Why should this large distance be required? If gas particle A were far enough away from gas particle B that theyexperience no electrical or magnetic interaction, then it would not matter what types of particles A and B were. Nor would it matterwhat the sizes of particles A and B were. Finally, then, we conclude from this reasoning that the validity of the ideal gas lawrests of the presumption that there are no interactions of any type between gas particles.

## Postulates of the kinetic molecular theory

We recall at this point our purpose in these observations. Our primary concern in this study is attempting torelate the properties of individual atoms or molecules to the properties of mass quantities of the materials composed of theseatoms or molecules. We now have extensive quantitative observations on some specific properties of gases, and we proceed with the taskof relating these to the particles of these gases.

By taking an atomic molecular view of a gas, we can postulate that the pressure observed is a consequence of thecollisions of the individual particles of the gas with the walls of the container. This presumes that the gas particles are in constantmotion. The pressure is, by definition, the force applied per area, and there can be no other origin for a force on the walls of thecontainer than that provided by the particles themselves. Furthermore, we observe easily that the pressure exerted by the gasis the same in all directions. Therefore, the gas particles must be moving equally in all directions, implying quite plausibly that themotions of the particles are random.

To calculate the force generated by these collisions, we must know something about the motions of the gasparticles so that we know, for example, each particle’s velocity upon impact with the wall. This is too much to ask: thereare perhaps $10^{20}$ particles or more, and following the path of each particle is out of the question. Therefore, we seek a model whichpermits calculation of the pressure without this information.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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