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A thorough review of the principal exceptions and limitations to copyrights recognized by the main multilateral agreements -- combined with a argument for the clarification and expansion of those exceptions and limitations, emphasizing "the importance of access to creative works for developing countries" -- may be found in  Ruth L. Okediji, "The International Copyright System: Limitations, Exceptions and Public Interest Considerations for Developing Countries, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development," Issue Paper No. 15 (2006) . Included in Okediji's essay is an excellent discussion of the Berne Convention Appendix.

For a WIPO study more skeptical of the value of those exceptions and limitations, see  WIPO Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, WIPO Study on Limitations and Exceptions of Copyright and Related Rights in the Digital Environment, 9th Session, June 23-27, 2003, WIPO Doc. SCCR/9/7 (April 5, 2003) .

An excellent study of the process of implementing the TRIPS Agreement (including a detailed discussion of the complex processes that led to the revised Bangui Agreement among the OAPI countries) can be found in Carolyn Deere,  The Implementation Game: The TRIPS Agreement and the Global Politics of Intellectual Property Reform in Developing Countries  (Oxford UP 2009). The Introduction, which sketches the argument of the book, is available online  here .

For up-to-date information concerning the implementation of the EU Information Society Directive by individual countries, including a good bibliography of scholarly studies of the implementation process, see Instituut voor Infomatierecht (IVIR),  Report on the Implementation of the Information Society Directive (2008).


The following judicial opinion and summaries of rulings issued in WTO dispute resolution proceedings explore and apply some of the principles discussed in this module:

Joined Cases C-92/92 and C-326/92, Phil Collins v Imtrat Handelsgesellschaft mbH; Patricia Im-und Export Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH and Another v EMI Electrola GmbH (1993)  (Applicability of the EEC Treaty to IP rights)

Sarah E. Henry, "The First International Challenge to U.S. Copyright Law: What Does the WTO Analysis of 17 U.S.C. § 110(5) Mean to the Future of International Harmonization of Copyright Laws Under the TRIPS Agreement?," 20 Penn State International Law Review 301 (2001) .  (EU vs. US)

Jan Bohanes&Adrian Emch, "WTO Panel Report on China IPR: A Mixed Result," China Law&Practice, pp. 19-20, March 2009  (US vs. China)

Assignment and discussion questions


1. Which international treaties governing copyright law has your country signed, ratified, and implemented?

2. If your country is a member of the Berne Convention, may your national legislature set the copyright term to either a) 120 years or b) 25 years? Why or why not?

3. Imagine that your country is a member of the Berne Convention, but not of the WTO. Thus, your country is not bound by TRIPS.

May your national legislature require foreign copyright holders to register their works with your country in order to receive copyright protection?

If your legislature  did  require registration, could other members of the Berne Convention take action against your country? How would your answer be different if your country were also a member of the WTO?

4. Suppose that the fictional country of Atlantis has recently signed and ratified the WCT. Its national legislature wants to implement the treaty. Atlantis only imports software from other countries and it has never before protected them under copyright law. The legislature believes that it is in the interest of Atlanteans to extend as little copyright protection to computer programs as possible. What provisions of the WTC would allow Atlanteans to freely use computer programs?

5. Do you think that both developed and developing countries should have the same rules for copyright protection? Why or why not?

6. Read article 3-1 of the  draft text of the A2K treaty . Comment on the importance of one or two provisions for the missions you perform as a librarian.

Discussion question(s)

Please read the comments on the A2K treaty proposals that your colleagues provided to question 6, above, and comment on one (or more) of them. You may give more examples based on situations you have faced at work, or projects you could develop.


This module was created by  Petroula Vantsiouri . It was then edited by a team including  Sebastian DiazWilliam FisherUrs Gasser , Adam HollandKimberley IsbellPeter JasziColin MaclayAndrew Moshirnia , and  Chris Peterson .

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
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Source:  OpenStax, Copyright for librarians. OpenStax CNX. May 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10698/1.2
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