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In addition, the proposed treaty would establish a  First Sale Doctrine  for  Library Use , stating that “a work that has been lawfully acquired by a library may be lent to others without further transaction fees to be paid by the library.” Finally, the A2K treaty proposal introduces provisions in support of distance education, as well as provisions accommodating the rights of persons with disabilities.

Librarians and library patrons aren’t the only parties who could benefit from the A2K treaty. The proposal includes rules protecting Internet Service Providers  from copyright liability, and also mitigates the strict prohibitions on circumvention of encryption contained in several international copyright treaties. Under the proposed treaty,  nonoriginal  and  orphan works  (those works for which a copyright holder cannot be identified upon reasonable search) would be left in the  public domain . The treaty would also guarantee access to publicly funded research works, government works, and archives of public broadcasting. Finally, the A2K treaty proposal also includes provisions on patent protection, anticompetitive practices, and transfer of technology to developing countries.

Back to the case study

To advise Angela, Nadia should review the lists of the member countries of all of the international agreements discussed in this lesson to ascertain whether their country has joined any of those agreements. She should then review the terms of any applicable agreements to determine whether they prevent expansion of the rights of teachers and students to use copyrighted materials without permission. That inquiry will likely require Nadia to consider which of the various interpretations of the three-step test is most sensible, and the extent to which that test limits a country's discretion in recognizing exceptions and limitations for educational purposes. That analysis will be difficult and may require Nadia to consult with fellow librarians.

Additional resources

A thorough discussion of international copyright law may be found in Paul Edward Geller, ed.,  International Copyright Law and Practive  (2 volumes, Matthew Bender), although its coverage of developing and transitional countries is thin. (It is also  prohibitively expensive ). Other useful paper treatises include Paul Goldstein,  International Copyright: Principles, Law, and Practice  (Oxford University Press) and Silke von Lewinski,  International Copyright Law and Policy  (Oxford University Press 2008).

An online course on International Copyright Law, directed at librarians, may be found  here , but it is also expensive.

An excellent compendium of the copyright laws in over 100 countries has been assembled by  UNESCO: Collection of National Copyright Laws .

As indicated above, an especially important component of most international copyright agreements is the three-step test. The most comprehensive and accessible examination of the history and meaning of that test may be found in  P. Bernt Hugenholtz&Ruth L. Okediji, Conceiving an International Instrument on Limitations and Exceptions to Copyright: Final Report, March 06, 2008 . Other good analyses of the three-step test available in print but not online include Martin Senftleben,  Copyright, Limitations and the Three-Step Test (Kluwer Law Int'l 2004); and Jane C. Ginsburg, "Toward Supranational Copyright Law? The WTO Panel Decision and the "Three Step Test" for Copyright Exemptions," 187 Revue internationale Du Droit D'Auteur 3, 49 (2001).

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Copyright for librarians. OpenStax CNX. May 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10698/1.2
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