# 0.1 States of matter and the kinetic molecular theory

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## Introduction

In this chapter we will explore the states of matter and then look at the kinetic molecular theory. Matter exists in three states: solid, liquid and gas. We will also examine how the kinetic theory of matter helps explain boiling and melting points as well as other properties of matter.

When a gas is heated above a certain temperature the electrons in the atoms start to leave the atoms. The gas is said to be ionised. When a gas is ionised it is known as a plasma. Plasmas share many of the properties of gases (they have no fixed volume and fill the space they are in). This is a very high energy state and plasmas often glow. Ionisation is the process of moving from a gas to a plasma and deionisation is the reverse process. We will not consider plasmas further in this chapter.

## States of matter

All matter is made up of particles. We can see this when we look at diffusion. Diffusion is the movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration. Diffusion can be seen as a spreading out of particles resulting in an even distribution of the particles. You can see diffusion when you place a drop of food colouring in water. The colour slowly spreads out through the water. If matter were not made of particles then we would only see a clump of colour when we put the food colouring in water, as there would be nothing that could move about and mix in with the water. The composition of matter will be looked at in What are the objects around us made of? .

Diffusion is a result of the constant thermal motion of particles. In [link] we will talk more about the thermal motion of particles.

In 1828 Robert Brown observed that pollen grains suspended in water moved about in a rapid, irregular motion. This motion has since become known as Brownian motion. Brownian motion is essentially diffusion of many particles.

Matter exists in one of three states, namely solid, liquid and gas. Matter can change between these states by either adding heat or removing heat. This is known as a change of state. As we heat an object (e.g. water) it goes from a solid to a liquid to a gas. As we cool an object it goes from a gas to a liquid to a solid. The changes of state that you should know are:

• Melting is the process of going from solid to liquid.
• Boiling (or evaporation) is the process of going from liquid to gas.
• Freezing is the process of going from liquid to solid.
• Condensation is the process of going from gas to liquid.
• Occasionally (e.g. for carbon dioxide) we can go directly from solid to gas in a process called sublimation.
A solid has a fixed shape and volume. A liquid takes on the shape of the container that it is in. A gas completely fills the container that it is in. See [link] for more on changes of state.

If we know the melting and boiling point of a substance then we can say what state (solid, liquid or gas) it will be in at any temperature.

## Aim

To investigate the heating and cooling curve of water.

## Apparatus

beakers, ice, bunsen burner, thermometer, water.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Good
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP