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Disparities in academic achievement have been a problematic issue among students of different ethnic groups (Alexander, Entwisle,&Olson, 2007; Borba, 2009; Borman&Kimball, 2005; Boyd-Zaharias&Pate-Bain, 2008; Butler&Stevens, 2001; Wallitt, 2008; Zhang&Cowen, 2009). Since the implementation of the NCLB Act, the effectiveness of the law narrowing the achievement gap has been contradictory (Ceci, Papierno,&Mueller-Johnson, 2002; Johnston, 1997). Proponents of the NCLB Act maintain that Black and Hispanic students in fourth grade showed “higher average reading scores in comparison to 2005 and 1992” (National Center for Education Statistics, 2007, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2007/2007496_2.pdf). Although Black students (203 points) and Hispanic students (205 points) narrowed the achievement gap by 11 and 16 points, White students (231 points) still maintained a average 27 point advantage in reading for 2007 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2007, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2007/2007496_2.pdf). The National Center for Education Statistics (2007) reported fourth grade students with LEP, averaged 188 points in Reading (Nations Report Card, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/).

Planty et al. (2009) indicated that nationally, fourth grade Hispanic students and Black students increased their mathematic scores in 2007, although a statistically significant difference was not present between Black students and White students in the 2005 and 2007 school year. Similarly, the White and Hispanic achievement gap increased in the 1990’s, but stabilized and did not narrow during the 2007 school year (Planty et al., 2009). (Grade 4 National Results, http://nationsreportcard.gov/math_2009/gr4_national.asp?subtab_id=Tab_7&tab_id=tab1#chart).

In each case and congruent with the extant literature, White students had statistically significant higher passing rates in both reading and in math than did Hispanic students. The gap between the passing rates for these two groups of students remained consistent across all 16 years of statewide data. As such, we believe that this lack of equity needs to be addressed.

To date, we contend that efforts such as the ESEA and the NCLB Act have not resulted in substantial improvements in the schooling lives of minority children. In our study, we have provided extensive documentation that the schooling lives of Hispanic children are not better as a result of the ESEA and the NCLB Act. An argument could be made that legislation such as the ESEA and the NCLB Act are good for appearance sake, but have no real substance. As such, the lack of equity is permitted to continue, if not, encouraged to continue. Accordingly, we contend that the previous segregation that occurred in school still exists, though now disguised. Prior to ESEA and the NCLB Act, members of minority groups demonstrated statistically significantly lower academic achievement scores than did White students. Years later, in fact decades later, the same achievement gap exists between members of minority groups and White students. The question that should be asked is, “Why do we continue to have a schooling system that continues the same old instructional practices in which minority group persons achieve at a poorer level than White students?” An answer to this question could be that these practices are deliberate and intentional.

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
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Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
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Kyle
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biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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characteristics of micro business
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Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, The achievement gap between white and non-white students. OpenStax CNX. Jan 10, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11402/1.4
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