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Discussion

In this study, we investigated the passing rates in reading and in math over the past 16 years of Texas statewide data for White students and for Hispanic students on state-mandated assessment measures. Concerning the first research question for 16 academic school years (1993-2009) for Hispanic students and White students in reading, statistically significant differences were yielded for all years of data. From the 1993-2009 school years, the average passing rate of White students was 10.5% higher than the average passing rate of Hispanic students. Effect sizes for the 16-year time period ranged from moderate (0.58- 0.79) to large (0.84-1.41). For Hispanic and White students in reading, a large effect size extended across a 11-year time period and a moderate effect size continued across a 5-year time period.

Additionally, for the second research question for 16 academic school years for Hispanic students and White students in math, statistically significant differences were yielded for all years of data. Across the 16-year time period, the average passing rate in math for White students was 90.20% whereas, for Hispanic students, the average passing rate was 82.44% in math. For the 1993-2009 data analyzed, White students outperformed Hispanic students by an average of 7.76% in math. The effect size range for the 16-year time period ranged from small (0.30- 0.40), moderate (0.53-0.71), and large (0.85-0.92). For Hispanic and White students in math, a large effect size extended across a 6-year time period, a moderate effect size continued across an 8-year time period, and a small effect size extended for a 2-year time period.

For the 16-year time period, the trend concerning the differences in passing rates in reading between Hispanic students and White students in elementary school revealed an uninterrupted achievement gap. The passing rates in reading for White students averaged 6.73% to 30.87% higher than the average passing rates for Hispanic students across the 16-year time period. Differences in passing rates in reading between Hispanic students and White students were evident in the initial 1993-1994, 2002-2003, 2004-2005 testing years.

Pertaining to the 16-year time period, in math, the trend concerning the differences in passing rates between Hispanic students and White students revealed a continuous achievement gap. More accurately, a trend with differences between Hispanic and White students was present for all 16 years of data analyzed. Average differences between White students were 1.50% to 13.61% higher than Hispanic students for math, over the 16-year time period. Differences in passing rates in math between Hispanic students and White students were evident in the initial 1993-1994, 1994-1995, 2003-2004, and 2004-2005 testing years.

Equity in academic achievement for all students, regardless of ethnicity, is an issue that has captured the attention of politicians, educators, and the federal government (Yell&Drasgow, 2005). The exigency to create equal educational opportunities for all students was actualized during the civil rights movements and the implementation of the Elementary and Secondary Educational Act during the 1960s (Yell&Drasgow, 2005). Equity in education reached a pivotal point when the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was enacted, in an effort to create equality for all students through “…stronger accountability for results, more freedom for states and communities, proven education methods, and more choices for parents” (U.S. Department of Education, http://www.ed.gov/nclb/overview/intro/4pillars.html). Provisions of the NCLB Act went into effect the following July, 2003. The foundation of the NCLB Act stemmed from the certainty that an increased role of the federal government in education would develop impartiality for all students (Yell&Drasgow, 2005).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The achievement gap between white and non-white students. OpenStax CNX. Jan 10, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11402/1.4
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