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Descriptive Statistics for Passing Rates in Reading and in Math for Hispanic Students and White Students for the 1994-1995 and 1993-1994 School Years
1994-1995 School Year n M SD
Reading Pass Rates
Hispanic Students 1,680 74.85 15.80
White Students 1,680 86.56 10.85
Math Pass Rates
Hispanic Students 1,677 67.31 17.87
White Students 1,677 80.85 13.74
1993-1994 School Year
Reading Pass Rates
Hispanic Students 1,688 72.12 15.19
White Students 1,688 85.73 10.79
Math Pass Rates
Hispanic Students 1,698 54.19 19.14
White Students 1,698 71.82 15.80

Reading. For the 16-year time period, the trend concerning the differences in passing rates in reading between Hispanic students and White students in elementary school revealed a continuous achievement gap. Passing rates in reading for White students averaged 6.73% to 30.87% higher than the average passing rates for Hispanic students over the 16-year time period. The differences in passing rates in reading between Hispanic students and White students were evident in the initial 1993-1994, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005 testing years. During the 1992-1993 school year within the state of Texas, differences may be explained with the transition of TAAS testing from the fall to the spring, as well as the implementation of the TAAS tests for students in grades 4 through grades 8, and a new accountability measure for districts and campuses alike (http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/resources/studies/testingtimeline.pdf).

Effect Sizes in Reading Over a 16-Year Time Period
Years M Difference d Effect Size Range
2008-2009 8.89 0.93 Large
2007-2008 8.46 0.93 Large
2006-2007 11.51 1.10 Large
2005-2006 11.89 1.41 Large
2004-2005 14.96 1.28 Large
2003-2004 13.28 1.18 Large
2002-2003 10.59 0.88 Large
2001-2002 4.06 0.58 Moderate
2000-2001 6.24 0.73 Moderate
1999-2000 8.54 0.84 Large
1998-1999 8.23 0.78 Near-Large
1997-1998 7.48 0.73 Moderate
1996-1997 10.95 0.93 Large
1995-1996 11.33 0.91 Large
1994-1995 11.71 0.79 Near-Large
1993-1994 13.61 1.03 Large

Differences in passing rates between Hispanic students and White students were also discernible during the 2002-2003 school year, which coincided with the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act. As mentioned previously, this law was enacted to bring stricter accountability for school campuses and districts, as well as 100% passing rates for all students by the 2013-2014 school year. The greatest difference in achievement between Hispanic students and White students was evident during the 2003-2005 school years. This wide discrepancy in passing rate between students corresponded with the administration of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills test (http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/resources/studies/testingtimeline.pdf). By the 2005-2006 school year, the mean difference between both groups began to decline and continued to decline through the 2008-2009 school year. The smallest gap occurred during the 2001-2002 school year (4.06%). Readers are referred to Figure 1 for the trend that was present concerning the difference in passing rates in reading between Hispanic students and White students in elementary school, across a 16-year time period.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
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LITNING Reply
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LITNING Reply
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LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
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Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Renato
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Kyle
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
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Source:  OpenStax, The achievement gap between white and non-white students. OpenStax CNX. Jan 10, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11402/1.4
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