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After checking the assumptions for normality for students’ TAKS and TAAS reading scores and their math scores, it was determined that the datasets for all 16 years of data demonstrated evidence of non-normality. That is, the standardized skewness coefficients (i.e., the skewness value divided by its standard error) and the standardized kurtosis coefficients (i.e., the kurtosis value divided by its standard error) were almost all outside of the boundaries of +/- 3 (Onwuegbuzie&Daniel, 2002). The most likely reason for these students’ TAKS Reading and TAKS Math scores being non-normal is due to the content assessed on these tests being taught in Texas classrooms. Test items on the TAKS are designed to assess the information and skills taught in classroom settings. As such, 50% of the test scores would not be expected to be average or below, on content specifically taught to students. A final explanation is that in norm-referenced measures, student performance is compared to the performance of other peers. In the case of the two TAKS measures, student performance is compared to the number of items answered correctly. Each item receives a specific point value. Students, as noted above, who receive 40 points in Reading are rated as having passed the exam.

Because student achievement data were not normally distributed, nonparametric procedures were utilized to answer the research questions delineated above. Nonparametric procedures do not have as an assumption that test scores are normally distributed. As such, they are the optimal statistical procedure to use when the assumption of normality of data is violated.

In regard to the 2008-2009 academic year, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed the presence of statistically significant differences in passing rates in reading between Hispanic students and White students, z = -26.18, p <.001, and in passing rates in math, z = -21.96, p <.001. Effect sizes were large, with a Cohen’s d of 0.93 for the reading pass rate difference, and moderate, with a Cohen’s d of 0.61 for the math pass rate difference (Cohen, 1988). Hispanic students averaged 8.89% points lower in their reading pass rates and 6.73% points lower in their math pass rates than White students.

Because of the space required to report in detail all of the statistical analyses conducted in this study, only the following information will be provided. Readers are requested to contact the authors directly for the detailed numeric phrases for each analysis. Statistically significant differences were yielded at the .001 level, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, in reading and in math between Hispanic and White students for the other 15 years of data analyzed. Effect sizes are depicted for each analysis in Tables 9 and 10, along with the mean difference in student passing rate.

Descriptive Statistics for Passing Rates in Reading and in Math for Hispanic Students and for White Students for the 2008-2009 and 2007-2008 School Years
2008-2009 School Year n of schools M SD
Reading Pass Rates
Hispanic Students 1,544 80.17 10.68
White Students 1,544 89.06 8.30
Math Pass Rates
Hispanic Students 1,518 80.69 11.80
White Students 1,518 87.42 10.32
2007-2008 School Year
Reading Pass Rates
Hispanic Students 1,463 81.33 10.40
White Students 1,463 89.79 7.66
Math Pass Rates
Hispanic Students 1,464 81.25 11.09
White Students 1,464 88.48 9.14

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The achievement gap between white and non-white students. OpenStax CNX. Jan 10, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11402/1.4
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