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As the state reduces its own expenditure on non-personnel costs, parents are forced to make a larger financial contribution to schools resulting in an increased burden on parents [Kallaway (2008; 189)]. This view is supported by Marishane and Botha (2004; 97) who state that the provision of education for all without parents and communities having to share the cost would not be affordable (for the state) given the resources made available for education by the state.

The South African Schools Act Section 39 [School Fees at Public Schools]; Section 40 [Parent's Liability for Payment of School Fees]and Section 41 [Enforcement of Payment of School Fees] further enunciate the obligations of the parents:

39. (1) Subject to this Act, school fees may be determined and charged at a public school only if a resolution to do so has been adopted by a majority of parents attending the budget meeting

39. (2) a resolution contemplated above must provide for-

39. (2) (a) the amount of fees to be charged; and

39. (2) (b) equitable criteria and procedures for the total, partial or conditional exemption of parents unable to pay school fees.

40. A parent is liable to pay the school fees determined in terms of section 39 unless he or she has been exempted from payment.

41. The governing body of a public school may by process of law enforce the payment of school fees by parents who are liable to pay.

Table 4 below indicates the norms and standards budget allocation made by the state to public schools over the past four years. The year 2006 serves as the base year when quintiles were standardized throughout the country – even though there is an increase in monetary terms (+/- 5%) the allocation has decreased in real terms, that is the purchasing power of the increased allocation has actually decreased as the increase in the states allocation to schools has not kept up with the rate of inflation.

Table 4: Norms&Standards Allocation (2006 – 2009)
Quintile Allocation (in Rand)
2006 2007 2008 2009
1 703 738 775 807
2 645 677 771 740
3 527 554 581 605
4 352 369 338 404
5 117 123 129 160
Source: Clarke (2008; 297) Adapted and Updated

In the light of the current global economic recession the National Treasury has reduced its budgetary allocation to provinces by 7,5% directing the Department of Education to reduce its budget to schools by 7,5% as well [KZN Circular 50 (2009; 1)]. The KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education has resolved to absorb a bigger part of the reduction and reduce the budget to each school by only 1,5% across the board from quintile 1 to quintile 4 resulting in the revised budget allocation for the 2009/10 financial year as shown in table 5:

Table 5: Revised Norms&Standards Allocation (2009)
Quintile Allocation (in Rand)
Target Revised
1 807 795
2 740 729
3 605 596
4 404 398
Source: KZN Circular 50 of 2009

The state has taken cognisance of the global economic recession and has addressed the perceived consequences of the recession via the unnumbered KZN Circular dated 27 May 2009 entitled “No fee Schools 2010/2011.” According to KZN Circular 27/05 (2009; 1) the DoE has extended the no fee school band to Quintile 3 schools for the 2010/2011 financial year. Quintile 3 schools will be funded at the target amount of seven hundred and eighty four rand (R784) per learner per annum in the 2010/2011 (next) financial year – representing a 31, 5% increase. The South African Schools Act has also taken cognizance of the state’s predicament and through Section 36 [Responsibility of the Governing Body] mandates the governing body to supplement the states allocation:

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s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
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That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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s. Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Financial management of schools. OpenStax CNX. Nov 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11137/1.1
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