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34. (1) The State must fund public schools from public revenue on an equitable basis in order to ensure the proper exercise of the rights of learners to education and the redress of past inequalities in education provision.

35. Subject to the Constitution and this Act, the Minister must determine norms and minimum standards for the funding of public schools after consultation with the Council of Education Ministers, the Financial and Fiscal Commission and the Minister of Finance.

According to the National Norms and Standards for School Funding (2000; 8) schools are viewed as cost centres and funds are allocated at the level of the provinces to types of costs:

(i) personnel costs – which includes salaries of educators and non-educators. These costs are paid by the PED.

(ii) non-personnel costs – which includes the cost of textbooks, stationery, maintenance, municipal services, and so on. These monies are paid into the current banking account of schools in the case of a Section 21 school or paid to the service providers on behalf of schools in the case of Non-Section 21 schools.

Regardless of whether the school is Section 21 or Non-Section 21 the allocation (the amount the school will receive) is the same as it is based on the number of learners enrolled at the school and the quintile in which the school is ranked. The National Norms and Standards budget allocation does however have limitations and restrictions to its use. According to KZN Circular 29 (2009; 1) schools’ allocations are intended to cover non-personnel recurrent items and small capital items required by the school as well as normal (minor) repairs and maintenance to all the physical infrastructure of the school. The school allocation is primarily and exclusively intended for the promotion of efficient and quality education in public ordinary schools. KZN Circular 29 goes on to give school governing bodies “Guidelines for the Apportionment of the Allocation” and the recommended fund split is 60% for Learning, Teaching Support Materials (LTSM) and 40% for Non Learning, Teaching Support Materials (Non LTSM). Even though a “fund split” guide is given schools are compelled to abide by the guidelines and these funds are said to be “Rind Fenced” for their intended purpose/s.

The 60% LTSM funds must be split as follows:

30% for textbooks

18% for stationery

12% for other LTSM

The 40% Non LTSM must be split as follows:

20% for materials, furniture and equipment

10% for domestic account payments

5% for security services

5% for minor repairs and maintenance

In the case of Non-Section 21 schools the Norms and Standards budget allocation is not paid into the school’s current banking account – that is, the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education (KZNDoE) manages the school’s the Norms and Standards budget allocation and this is commonly referred to as a “paper allocation” or a “paper budget”. The school therefore may only procure goods and services through the department of educations’ education district office and regional service centre. One of the greatest disadvantages for Non-Section 21 schools, according to Mestry (2004; 130) is in the event of requisitions not being processed at financial year end, schools lose their allocation since there is no “roll over” of unspent budgeted amounts, that is the unspent portion of the allocation cannot be carried over to the following financial year. In the case of Section 21 schools the Norms and Standards budget allocation is paid into the school’s current banking. These schools may carry out their own procurement and may deal directly with suppliers and contractors for the relevant budgeted items in accordance with standard procurement procedures – [KZN Circular 29 (2009; 2)]. One of the greatest advantages of a school being allocated Section 21 functions, according to Mestry (2004: 130), is in the event of the school being unable to spend all of the states (budget) allocation in time, the school governing body may still process orders for services to be rendered or for Learning, Teaching Support Materials (LTSM) and (for goods and services) to be purchased because the money allocated by the Provincial Education Department is still in the school’s banking account.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Financial management of schools. OpenStax CNX. Nov 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11137/1.1
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