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In Frederic Chopin's Prelude in A-Major , the basic pattern is a rhythm:

That rhythm occurs identically eight times. Here is the first time it is played.

The stability of its rhythmic pattern gives the work consistency. At the same time, the music moves andprogresses thanks to the variety of melody and harmony. Listen to how the pattern underlies thefollowing examples:

Now, listen to the Chopin Prelude in its entirety.

Out of the eight times the rhythmic pattern is played, it only occurs the same way twice. As in the Bach , varied repetition helps to make the music both intelligible and dynamic.

The following pattern accompanies the voice in Stravinsky's Akahito from his "Three Haiku Settings" :

In the Chopin , the rhythm was repeated exactly, but the pitches changed. In the Stravinsky , both the rhythm and the pitches are repeated: thirteen times in all in this short piece!

So how is variety created? In this case, as the pattern is repeated over and over, an ever changing layer is superimposed upon it. It is as if the basic pattern is "bombarded" in different ways, disguisingits reappearance.

The first four times the pattern is played, it alone accompanies the voice.

But the fifth time, the new layer is added:

From then on, the added layer is constantly evolving. You will be able to recognize the presence of the underlyingconstant pattern, but its reappearance is camouflaged by the changing layer on top of it.

Now, listen to Akahito in its entirety:

In Bach and Chopin examples, the basic pattern is treated dynamically : Almost every reappearance is new in some way. In the Stravinsky example, the basic pattern itself is much more static. Yet the music never sounds the same because of the music superimposed on top of it is always changing. Thus, the goal of"repetition without redundancy" is accomplished in a new way.

In his work Piano Phase , Steve Reich takes Stravinsky's procedure and goes one step further: Just like Stravinsky, he holds his basicpattern completely static. Just like Stravinsky, he superimposes an added layer: But, this time, the added layeris the basic pattern itself!

The musical material of Steve Reich's Piano Phase for two pianos consists of the following pattern.

In Piano Phase , the first player remains absolutely fixed, repeating the basic pattern over and overagain. The second player plays exactly the same pattern, but gradually shifts its alignment so that it falls more andmore out-of-phase with the first player. As the second player shifts alignment, new resultant patterns are created.

As an analogy, imagine that you had two identical panels, each made of strips of colored glass. At first, you line upthe panels perfectly and shine a light through them. The sequence of colors in the panels would be projected on thewall: Let us say it is blue, yellow, red, yellow, blue. Then, you keep one panel fixed and the slide the panelslightly over: In the new alignment, the red in the first panel is aligned with the blue of the second, the blue withthe yellow, etc. When you shine a light through the panels, you get a new sequence of colors on the wall: purple, green,etc. Colors you've never seen before suddenly appear! As you can imagine, every time you shift one strip over, theresultant colors change. With startling efficiency, you can create constantly new patterns on the wall just by changinghow the panels are aligned.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Michael's sound reasoning. OpenStax CNX. Jan 29, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10400/1.1
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