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Thus far, we have seen that musical repetition can occur in different sizes and over different time-spans, from local tolarge-scale. We have also seen that smaller repetitions can be "nested" inside of larger ones: Notice, for instance, howthe section from Beethoven's Bagatelle has internal repetition of short patterns and longer phrases, and also eventually recurs in its entirety.

Maximizing the minimum

In popular music--as well as children's songs--repetition is often literal and direct. This makes the music morereadily accessible and immediately intelligible.

For instance, in this folk song sung by Pete Seeger, a short musical idea is repeated over and over exactly thesame--sixteen times in a mere thirty seconds. On top of the quickly cycling music, Seeger presents a rapid fire list ofanimal names...

What distinguishes classical music from most pop music is that, in classical music, the repetition is more frequently varied and transformed . This makes the repetition flexible, capable of assuming of many forms and moods. WhenElizabeth Barrett Browning writes "How do I love thee--let me count the ways/I love thee to the depth andbreadth and height my soul can reach...I love thee to the level of every day's most quiet need....I love thee freely, Ilove thee purely," she is using varied repetition to make her point. Similarly, one of the guiding principles ofart-music is repetition without redundancy . The music will repeat its main ideas, but constantly in new ways.

In the popular "South Beach Diet," dieters are at a first restricted to a very limited regimen of foods: no bread, fruit, alchohol or sugar. The challenge of the diet isto create a varied menu from such a circumscribed list of ingredients. Otherwise, the dieter will begin to stray. So, a lot ofeffort and inventiveness goes into designing recipes that makes the daily staples lively andtasty.

In classical music, the goal is similarly to maximize the minimum . That is, the goal is to take a limited number of ingredients and create the greatest possiblevariety. A composer such as Beethoven or Bartok can take just a few basic elements and create the musical equivalent of a complete meal of soup,main course, salad and dessert--all with distinctive flavors, so that you sometimes can't even recognize the presence ofthe same ingredients in every recipe.

Let us study the concept of varied repetition in several works.

The basic pattern of Bach's C-Major Invention is the following:

This basic pattern is repeated over and over again throughout the piece, but in constantly new forms.

For instance, Bach plays the basic pattern in different registers :

Bach begins the basic pattern on different pitches:

Bach turns the pattern upside down:

Bach fragments the theme, dwelling on different segments of it.

In the next sample, he takes the first four notes and plays them at half-speed

Here, he takes the last four notes, and extends them into an exciting rising figure

He changes the groupings of the basic pattern, sometimes having several versions of the entire pattern in succession:

Finally, he changes how the pattern is echoed between the hands. Sometimes, the left hand leads:

Sometimes, the right hand leads. Notice, in this example, that Bach flips the basic pattern upside down and right sideup in alternation.

Now, please listen to the Bach: Invention in C-Major in its entirety.

All of these flexible repetitions are beautifully coordinated, so that the piece creates a clear opening,middle, climax and ending. The fact that the basic pattern occurs in every measure creates consistency . The fact that it rarely occurs the same way twice contributes to the music'smomentum and dynamism. The C-Major Invention is thus a case study in repetition without redundancy.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Michael's sound reasoning. OpenStax CNX. Jan 29, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10400/1.1
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