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Thus, repetition lies at the heart of how we understand music, ourselves and our world. We have a great faith in the richnessand significance of repetition. In listening to music, we rely on repetition as the bearer of meaning.

Repetition of different sizes

Repetitions come in different sizes, from small gestures to entire sections.

The repeating element may be as brief as a single sound. For instance, Arnold Schoenberg's Piano Piece, opus 19, no. 2 , opens with an "atomic" sound that repeats over and over.

Listen to the entire one-minute work. You will notice that, as everything changes around it, this repeating soundremains like a "beacon" of stability.

More commonly, the repeating element is a short figure, often called a motive .

Here is the famous motive of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 .

In the opening phrase, this short figure is repeated eleven times, with greater and greater intensity:

In the "Anvil Chorus" of Wagner's Das Rheingold , the short figure is a rhythmic pattern. In this brief excerpt, the rhythmic motive isrepeated six times as the orchestra builds in intensity on top of it.

But repetition of longer units can occur. A phrase is a complete musical thought; it is often compared to a sentence. The opening phrase of Mozart's Symphony in g-minor has a lot of internal repetition. But it also creates a longer musical statementthat is repeated, sinking slightly in pitch the second time.

Here is the phrase by itself:

Here is the phrase with its repetition:

Notice that, in the approximately the same amount of time that Beethoven is able to repeat his motive eleven times and Wagner six, Mozart is only able to repeat his longer phrase twice.

Here is a similar example from Igor Stravinsky's ballet Pétrouchka . Similar to the Mozart , notice that the phrase is repeated in a slightly new form.

Even longer units of repetition can occur. A group of phrases can be joined together to create a theme; this mightbe compared to a paragraph. In the following example from Beethoven's Piano Sonata, Opus 53 , " Waldstein ," the theme again contains a lot of internal repetition. But the theme itself is repeated in itsentirety, with a more animated accompaniment.

In this excerpt from Bela Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra , the theme is repeated with a more elaborate instrumental accompaniment.

Finally, even a complete section of music can be repeated--a scale that might be likened to a chapter. This is whathappens in Luciano Berio's brief folk song, Ballo .

Thus, repetition can occur in a variety of sizes, from "atomic" elements to longer time-spans.

Local and large-scale repetition

Repetition is often local and immediate. But repetition, especially of larger units, can occur after interveningmusic has taken place.

For instance, in Beethoven's Bagatelle, Opus 126, no. 4 , the following section occurs:

After intervening music, the entire section is repeated exactly and in its entirety. The excerpt picks up at thetransition to the return:

When a repetition occurs after intervening music, we will call it a recurrence . The module "Time's Effect on the Material" is devoted to the study of recurrence.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
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Source:  OpenStax, Michael's sound reasoning. OpenStax CNX. Jan 29, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10400/1.1
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