# 0.1 Discrete structures introduction  (Page 2/2)

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S = A ( (1 + R)n + 1 - (1 + R) ) / R .

Once we have it in this compact form, it is fairly easy to compute S for different values of A, R and n, though one still has to compute (1 + R)n + 1 . This simple formula represents infinitely many cases involving all different values of A, R and n. The derivation of this formula, however, involves another problem. When computing the compact form for S,   S - (1 + R)S   was computed using   S = A(1 + R) + A(1 + R)2 + ... + A(1 + R)n . While this argument seems rigorous enough, in fact practically it is a good enough argument, when one wishes to be very rigorous, the ellipsis ... in the sum for S is not considered precise. You are expected to interpret it in a certain specific way. But it can be interpreted in a number of different ways. In fact it can mean anything. Thus if one wants to be rigorous, and absolutely sure about the correctness of the formula, one needs some other way of verifying it than using the ellipsis. Since one needs to verify it for infinitely many cases (infinitely many values of A, R and n), some kind of formal approach, abstracted away from actual numbers, is required.

Suppose now that somehow we have formally verified the formula successfully and we are absolutely sure that it is correct. It is a good idea to write a computer program to compute that S, especially with (1 + R)n + 1   to be computed. Suppose again that we have written a program to compute S. How can we know that the program is correct? As we know, there are infinitely many possible input values (that is, values of A, R and n). Obviously we can not test it for infinitely many cases. Thus we must take some formal approach. Related to the problem of correctness of computer programs, there is the well known "Halting Problem". This problem, if put into the context of program correctness, asks whether or not a given computer program stops on a given input after a finite amount of time. This problem is known to be unsolvable by computers. That is, no one can write a computer program to answer that question. It is known to be unsolvable. But, how can we tell it is unsolvable? How can we tell that such a program can not be written? You can not try all possible solution methods and see they all fail. You can not think of all (candidate) methods to solve the Halting Problem. Thus you need some kind of formal approaches here to avoid dealing with an extremely large number (if not infinite) of possibilities. Discrete mathematics is the foundation for the formal approaches. It discusses languages used in mathematical reasoning, basic concepts, and their properties and relationships among them. Though there is no time to cover them in this course, discrete mathematics is also concerned with techniques to solve certain types of problems such as how to count or enumerate quantities. The kind of counting problems includes: How many routes exist from point A to point B in a computer network? How much execution time is required to sort a list of integers in increasing order? What is the probability of winning a lottery? What is the shortest path from point A to point B in a computer network? ...

The subjects covered in this course include propositional logic, predicate logic, sets, relations, and functions, in particular growth of function. The first subject is logic. It is covered in Chapter 1 of the textbook. It is a language that captures the essence of our reasoning, and correct reasoning must follow the rules of this language. We start with logic of sentences called propositional logic, and study elements of logic, (logical) relationships between propositions, and reasoning. Then we learn a little more powerful logic called predicate logic. It allows us to reason with statements involving variables among others. In Chapter 1 we also study sets, relations between sets, and operations on sets. Just about everything is described based on sets, when rigor is required. It is the basis of every theory in computer science and mathematics. In Chapter 3 we learn mathematical reasoning, in particular recursive definitions and mathematical induction. There are sets, operations and functions that can be defined precisely by recursive definitions. Properties of those recursively defined objects can be established rigorously using proof by induction. Then in Chapter 6 we study relations. They are an abstraction of relations we are familiar with in everyday life such as husband-wife relation, parent-child relation and ownership relation. They are also one of the key concepts in the discussion of many subjects on computer and computation. For example, a database is viewed as a set of relations and database query languages are constructed based on operations on relations and sets. Graphs are also covered briefly here. They are an example of discrete structures and they are one of the most useful models for computer scientists and engineers in solving problems. More in-depth coverage of graph can be found in Chapter 7. Finally back in Chapter 1 we study functions and their asymptotic behaviors. Functions are a special type of relation and basically the same kind of concept as the ones we see in calculus. However, function is one of the most important concepts in the discussion of many subjects on computer and computation such as data structures, database, formal languages and automata, and analysis of algorithms which is briefly covered in Chapter 2.

what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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