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This is a good start, but now we need more elements. To bring in hydrogen, we can analyze the data from [link] in the first Concept Development Study which gives the mass ratio of oxygen and hydrogen in water. That data shows that the mass ratio of oxygen to hydrogen is 7.93 to 1.00. But we found in the previous section that the molecular formula of water is H 2 O. This means that in a sample of water there are twice as many hydrogen atoms as there are oxygen atoms. Therefore, the ratio of the mass of one oxygen atom to one hydrogen atom must be 7.93 to 0.50, or 15.86 to 1.00.

These atomic mass ratios need to be consistent with each other, since the masses of the atoms of an element are always the same. So if the ratio of one hydrogen to one oxygen is 1.00 to 15.86, and the ratio of one nitrogen to one oxygen is 1.00 to 1.14, then the ratio of one hydrogen to one nitrogen must be 1.00 to 13.91. We should be able to check this by looking at the hydrogen-nitrogen compound ammonia, also listed in [link] of the previous Concept Development Study. There we find that the mass ratio of nitrogen to hydrogen is 4.65 to 1.00. Clearly, ammonia is not NH. To find the molecular formula of ammonia, we need data from the Law of Combining Volumes. Experimental data reveal that 1 L of N 2 reacts with 3 L of H 2 to produce 2 L of ammonia. From this, we should be able to conclude that an ammonia molecule has the molecular formula NH 3 . Therefore, in a sample of ammonia, there are three times as many hydrogen atoms as there are nitrogen atoms. This means that the ratio of the mass of a nitrogen atom to a hydrogen atom is 3*4.65 to 1.00, or 13.95 to 1.00. We now have enough data to say that hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms have mass ratio of 1.00:13.95:15.86.

Observation 3: atomic masses for non-gaseous elements

The next element we would certainly like to have an atomic mass for would be carbon, and we would certainly like to be able to determine molecular formulas for carbon containing compounds. We have data from [link] in the previous CDS on compounds of hydrogen and carbon. But our analysis is not going to work this time. The Law of Combining Volumes and Avogadro’s Law in combination allow us to count atoms and find molecular formulas, but only for elements and compounds which are gases. Carbon is not a gas. It exists in several different elemental forms, but all are solid at normal temperatures and even at very high temperatures.

This means that we need to work harder and add some additional observations to our work. Let’s start with the two most common oxides of carbon, which for now we will give the names Oxide A and Oxide B. (Their real names, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, are based on assuming that we already know their molecular formulas. But we don’t know these, so we’ll stick with these code names for now.) Here are the data for the mass relationships from the Law of Multiple Proportions:

Mass relationships of simple compounds of carbon and oxygen
Compound Total Mass (g) Mass of Carbon (g) Mass of Oxygen (g)
Oxide A 2.33 1.00 1.33
Oxide B 3.66 1.00 2.66

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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