# 0.1 Atomic masses and molecular formulas  (Page 6/10)

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This is a good start, but now we need more elements. To bring in hydrogen, we can analyze the data from [link] in the first Concept Development Study which gives the mass ratio of oxygen and hydrogen in water. That data shows that the mass ratio of oxygen to hydrogen is 7.93 to 1.00. But we found in the previous section that the molecular formula of water is H 2 O. This means that in a sample of water there are twice as many hydrogen atoms as there are oxygen atoms. Therefore, the ratio of the mass of one oxygen atom to one hydrogen atom must be 7.93 to 0.50, or 15.86 to 1.00.

These atomic mass ratios need to be consistent with each other, since the masses of the atoms of an element are always the same. So if the ratio of one hydrogen to one oxygen is 1.00 to 15.86, and the ratio of one nitrogen to one oxygen is 1.00 to 1.14, then the ratio of one hydrogen to one nitrogen must be 1.00 to 13.91. We should be able to check this by looking at the hydrogen-nitrogen compound ammonia, also listed in [link] of the previous Concept Development Study. There we find that the mass ratio of nitrogen to hydrogen is 4.65 to 1.00. Clearly, ammonia is not NH. To find the molecular formula of ammonia, we need data from the Law of Combining Volumes. Experimental data reveal that 1 L of N 2 reacts with 3 L of H 2 to produce 2 L of ammonia. From this, we should be able to conclude that an ammonia molecule has the molecular formula NH 3 . Therefore, in a sample of ammonia, there are three times as many hydrogen atoms as there are nitrogen atoms. This means that the ratio of the mass of a nitrogen atom to a hydrogen atom is 3*4.65 to 1.00, or 13.95 to 1.00. We now have enough data to say that hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms have mass ratio of 1.00:13.95:15.86.

## Observation 3: atomic masses for non-gaseous elements

The next element we would certainly like to have an atomic mass for would be carbon, and we would certainly like to be able to determine molecular formulas for carbon containing compounds. We have data from [link] in the previous CDS on compounds of hydrogen and carbon. But our analysis is not going to work this time. The Law of Combining Volumes and Avogadro’s Law in combination allow us to count atoms and find molecular formulas, but only for elements and compounds which are gases. Carbon is not a gas. It exists in several different elemental forms, but all are solid at normal temperatures and even at very high temperatures.

This means that we need to work harder and add some additional observations to our work. Let’s start with the two most common oxides of carbon, which for now we will give the names Oxide A and Oxide B. (Their real names, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, are based on assuming that we already know their molecular formulas. But we don’t know these, so we’ll stick with these code names for now.) Here are the data for the mass relationships from the Law of Multiple Proportions:

 Compound Total Mass (g) Mass of Carbon (g) Mass of Oxygen (g) Oxide A 2.33 1.00 1.33 Oxide B 3.66 1.00 2.66

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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