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This is a wonderful result because we have now determined the molecular formula of hydrogen chloride, HCl. We have found a way to “count” the numbers of atoms in the reaction, at least in ratio, by measuring the volumes of the gases that react and that are produced. This gives us a chemical reaction showing the atoms and molecules that participate in the reaction in the correct ratio:

1 H 2 molecule + 1 Cl 2 molecule → 2 HCl molecules

This chemical equation is consistent with all of our known observations and the postulates of the Atomic Molecular Theory.

Since the Law of Combining Volumes is a general result, we can look at many chemical reactions with the same analysis. Let’s apply this to the hydrogen and oxygen reaction discussed earlier. Remember that 2 L of hydrogen react with 1 L of oxygen to form 2 L of water vapor. This means that two particles of hydrogen (which we know to be H 2 ) react with one particle of oxygen to form two particles of water. Once again, we have the problem that one atom of oxygen cannot make two molecules of water. Therefore, an oxygen gas particle cannot be an oxygen atom, so oxygen gas exists as oxygen molecules, O 2 . Since two H 2 molecules react with one O 2 molecule to form two water molecules, each water molecule must be H 2 O. We can write the chemical equation:

2 H 2 molecules + 1 O 2 molecule → 2 H 2 O molecules

We can use these observations to finally solve the riddle which is posed in [link] . We need to observe the volumes of oxygen and nitrogen which react to form Oxides A, B, and C. In separate experiments, we find:

1 L N 2 + 2 L O 2 → 2 L Oxide A

1 L N 2 + 1 L O 2 → 2 L Oxide B

2 L N 2 + 1 L O 2 → 2 L Oxide C

(At this point, it is pretty clear from the data and using our previous reasoning that nitrogen gas must consist of nitrogen molecules, N 2 , since 1 L of nitrogen gas can make 2 L of Oxide B.) From these data, we can conclude that Oxide B has molecular formula NO, since 1 L of oxygen plus 1 L of nitrogen produces 2 L of Oxide B with nothing left over. Similarly and with the use of [link] , we can say that Oxide A is NO 2 and Oxide C is N 2 O.

Observation 2: relative atomic masses

In the Introduction, we presented a dilemma in developing the Atomic Molecular Theory. To find the molecular formula of a compound, we needed to find the relative atomic masses. And to find the relative atomic masses, we needed to find the molecular formula of a compound. Using Avogadro’s Law, we have found a way to break out of this dilemma. By measuring gas volumes during reactions, we can essentially count the numbers of atoms in a molecule, giving us the molecular formula. Our task now is to use this information to find atomic masses.

We can begin by looking at the data in [link] and focusing on Oxide B at first. We know now that Oxide B has molecular formula NO. As such, it is given the name Nitric Monoxide, or more commonly Nitric Oxide. We also know from [link] that the mass ratio of oxygen to nitrogen in NO is 1.14 to 1.00. Since there are equal numbers of nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms in any sample of NO, then the mass ratio of an oxygen atom to a nitrogen atom is also 1.14 to 1.00. Stated differently, an oxygen atom has mass 1.14 times greater than a nitrogen atom.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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