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This is a wonderful result because we have now determined the molecular formula of hydrogen chloride, HCl. We have found a way to “count” the numbers of atoms in the reaction, at least in ratio, by measuring the volumes of the gases that react and that are produced. This gives us a chemical reaction showing the atoms and molecules that participate in the reaction in the correct ratio:

1 H 2 molecule + 1 Cl 2 molecule → 2 HCl molecules

This chemical equation is consistent with all of our known observations and the postulates of the Atomic Molecular Theory.

Since the Law of Combining Volumes is a general result, we can look at many chemical reactions with the same analysis. Let’s apply this to the hydrogen and oxygen reaction discussed earlier. Remember that 2 L of hydrogen react with 1 L of oxygen to form 2 L of water vapor. This means that two particles of hydrogen (which we know to be H 2 ) react with one particle of oxygen to form two particles of water. Once again, we have the problem that one atom of oxygen cannot make two molecules of water. Therefore, an oxygen gas particle cannot be an oxygen atom, so oxygen gas exists as oxygen molecules, O 2 . Since two H 2 molecules react with one O 2 molecule to form two water molecules, each water molecule must be H 2 O. We can write the chemical equation:

2 H 2 molecules + 1 O 2 molecule → 2 H 2 O molecules

We can use these observations to finally solve the riddle which is posed in [link] . We need to observe the volumes of oxygen and nitrogen which react to form Oxides A, B, and C. In separate experiments, we find:

1 L N 2 + 2 L O 2 → 2 L Oxide A

1 L N 2 + 1 L O 2 → 2 L Oxide B

2 L N 2 + 1 L O 2 → 2 L Oxide C

(At this point, it is pretty clear from the data and using our previous reasoning that nitrogen gas must consist of nitrogen molecules, N 2 , since 1 L of nitrogen gas can make 2 L of Oxide B.) From these data, we can conclude that Oxide B has molecular formula NO, since 1 L of oxygen plus 1 L of nitrogen produces 2 L of Oxide B with nothing left over. Similarly and with the use of [link] , we can say that Oxide A is NO 2 and Oxide C is N 2 O.

Observation 2: relative atomic masses

In the Introduction, we presented a dilemma in developing the Atomic Molecular Theory. To find the molecular formula of a compound, we needed to find the relative atomic masses. And to find the relative atomic masses, we needed to find the molecular formula of a compound. Using Avogadro’s Law, we have found a way to break out of this dilemma. By measuring gas volumes during reactions, we can essentially count the numbers of atoms in a molecule, giving us the molecular formula. Our task now is to use this information to find atomic masses.

We can begin by looking at the data in [link] and focusing on Oxide B at first. We know now that Oxide B has molecular formula NO. As such, it is given the name Nitric Monoxide, or more commonly Nitric Oxide. We also know from [link] that the mass ratio of oxygen to nitrogen in NO is 1.14 to 1.00. Since there are equal numbers of nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms in any sample of NO, then the mass ratio of an oxygen atom to a nitrogen atom is also 1.14 to 1.00. Stated differently, an oxygen atom has mass 1.14 times greater than a nitrogen atom.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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