# 0.1 Atomic masses and molecular formulas  (Page 4/10)

 Page 4 / 10

If the volumes are in a 2:1 ratio and the particles are in a 2:1 ratio, then a powerful conclusion emerges: equal volumes of the two gases must contain equal numbers of particles, regardless of whether they are hydrogen or oxygen. This seems like quite a leap to make, since we are concluding something about the numbers of particles without ever having counted them. What is the basis for this leap of logic? The most important part of the reasoning is the uniqueness of the integers. It is hard to come up with a simple explanation for why gas volumes should only react in integer ratios. The only simple conclusion is the one we have come to and that was first stated by Avogadro:

Avogadro’s Law: Equal volumes of gas contain equal numbers of particles, if the volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure.

One way to come to this conclusion is to imagine that it is not true. Assume that equal volumes of gases do not contain equal numbers of particles and instead contain unrelated numbers of particles. Let’s assume for example that 1 L of gas A contains 3.14 times as many particles as 1 L of gas B. Then to take equal numbers of A and B particles, we would need 3.14 L of gas B for every 1 L of gas A. For the gas particles of A and B to react in a simple integer ratio of particles, we would then need a non-integer ratio of volumes. But this is not what is observed in the Law of Combining Volumes: the volume of A and B that react are always observed to be a simple integer ratio. Our assumption that equal volumes contain unrelated numbers of particles leads us to a conclusion that is contradicted by experiments, so our assumption must be wrong. Therefore, equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of particles. We can conclude that Avogadro’s Law follows logically from the Law of Combining Volumes.

There is a problem that we have to work out. Looking back at one piece of evidence that led us to the Law of Combining Volumes, we found that 1 L of hydrogen plus 1 L of chlorine yields 2 L of hydrogen chloride. Using the conclusion of Avogadro’s Law, the volume ratio and the particle ratio must be the same. This seems to say that 1 hydrogen atom plus 1 chlorine atom makes 2 hydrogen chloride molecules. But this can’t be! How could we make 2 identical molecules of hydrogen chloride from a single chlorine atom and a single hydrogen atom? This would require us to divide each hydrogen and chlorine atom, violating the postulates of the Atomic Molecular Theory.

There is one solution to this problem, as was recognized by Avogadro. We have to be able to divide a hydrogen gas particle into two identical pieces. This means that a hydrogen gas particle must contain an even number of hydrogen atoms, most simply, two. This says that hydrogen gas exists as hydrogen molecules, and each hydrogen molecule contains two hydrogen atoms. The same conclusions apply to chlorine: a chlorine gas molecule must contain two chlorine atoms. If these conclusions are correct, then one hydrogen molecule, H 2 , can react with one chlorine molecule, Cl 2 , to form two hydrogen chloride molecules, HCl. The ratio of the reactant particles and the product particles is then the same as the ratio of the reactant gas volumes and the product gas volumes.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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