# 0.1 Atomic masses and molecular formulas  (Page 3/10)

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There is, however, something striking about the data just given for reaction of hydrogen and oxygen that should cause us to take a closer look the property of volume: the volumes of the gases are in simple integer ratios. This might look like a simple consequence of our choosing to react 1 liter of oxygen with 2 liters of hydrogen. But we can take any volumes we want, not just integer number of liters. We can react 1.42 liters of oxygen with 2.84 liters of hydrogen, and all of the hydrogen and oxygen will be consume to form 2.84 liters of water vapor. Notice that the ratio of volumes is oxygen:hydrogen:water vapor = 1:2:2, a simple integer ratio. If we try to react a different ratio, like 1.42 liters of oxygen with 3.00 liters of hydrogen, there will be leftover hydrogen when the reaction is complete. This is one way of observing the Law of Definite Proportions. We cannot choose to react arbitrary amounts of hydrogen and oxygen, since they combine in a fixed ratio by mass.

We thus observe that the volumes of hydrogen and oxygen that react, as well as the volume of water vapor product, are in a simple integer ratio. The only requirement for this to be true is that all of the gas volumes are measured with the same temperature and pressure. This result is quite general when we observe chemical reactions involving gases. The volume of hydrogen that will react with 1.0 L (liters) of nitrogen is 3.0 L, and the product of the reaction ammonia gas has volume 2.0 L. The ratio of volumes is a simple set of integers. Hydrogen chloride gas is formed from reacting hydrogen gas with chlorine gas, and again, 1.0 L of chlorine will only react with 1.0 L of hydrogen gas, with no hydrogen or chlorine left over and with 2.0 L of hydrogen chloride gas produced.

Many, many such observations can be made leading us to a general law of nature called the Law of Combining Volumes:

Law of Combining Volumes : When gases combine during a chemical reaction at fixed temperature and pressure, the volumes of the reacting gases and products are in simple integer ratios.

## Avogadro’s law – counting particles

The integer ratios in the Law of Combining Volumes are very striking. There are few quantities in nature which are measured in integers, so it is always surprising and revealing to discover integers in measurements. Integers are generally measured only when we are counting particles or taking ratios of particles. Observing volumes in simple integer ratios should be very revealing.

Looking back at the data for hydrogen and oxygen, we see that the volumes are in a simple 2:1 ratio. One of our major conclusions expressed in the Atomic Molecular Theory is that atoms and molecules react in simple integer ratios. A possible explanation of the integer volume ratios is that these are the same integer ratios as the particles react in. In the hydrogen-oxygen case, this means that the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms reacting is 2:1, since the volume ratio is 2:1.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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