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Demonstration of an exploding balloon containing hydrogen and oxygen done at Rice University by Dr. Mary McHale ( (External Link) ).
The Hindenburg, a German passenger airship, bursting into flames in 1937 ( (External Link) ).

There is, however, something striking about the data just given for reaction of hydrogen and oxygen that should cause us to take a closer look the property of volume: the volumes of the gases are in simple integer ratios. This might look like a simple consequence of our choosing to react 1 liter of oxygen with 2 liters of hydrogen. But we can take any volumes we want, not just integer number of liters. We can react 1.42 liters of oxygen with 2.84 liters of hydrogen, and all of the hydrogen and oxygen will be consume to form 2.84 liters of water vapor. Notice that the ratio of volumes is oxygen:hydrogen:water vapor = 1:2:2, a simple integer ratio. If we try to react a different ratio, like 1.42 liters of oxygen with 3.00 liters of hydrogen, there will be leftover hydrogen when the reaction is complete. This is one way of observing the Law of Definite Proportions. We cannot choose to react arbitrary amounts of hydrogen and oxygen, since they combine in a fixed ratio by mass.

We thus observe that the volumes of hydrogen and oxygen that react, as well as the volume of water vapor product, are in a simple integer ratio. The only requirement for this to be true is that all of the gas volumes are measured with the same temperature and pressure. This result is quite general when we observe chemical reactions involving gases. The volume of hydrogen that will react with 1.0 L (liters) of nitrogen is 3.0 L, and the product of the reaction ammonia gas has volume 2.0 L. The ratio of volumes is a simple set of integers. Hydrogen chloride gas is formed from reacting hydrogen gas with chlorine gas, and again, 1.0 L of chlorine will only react with 1.0 L of hydrogen gas, with no hydrogen or chlorine left over and with 2.0 L of hydrogen chloride gas produced.

Many, many such observations can be made leading us to a general law of nature called the Law of Combining Volumes:

Law of Combining Volumes : When gases combine during a chemical reaction at fixed temperature and pressure, the volumes of the reacting gases and products are in simple integer ratios.

Avogadro’s law – counting particles

The integer ratios in the Law of Combining Volumes are very striking. There are few quantities in nature which are measured in integers, so it is always surprising and revealing to discover integers in measurements. Integers are generally measured only when we are counting particles or taking ratios of particles. Observing volumes in simple integer ratios should be very revealing.

Looking back at the data for hydrogen and oxygen, we see that the volumes are in a simple 2:1 ratio. One of our major conclusions expressed in the Atomic Molecular Theory is that atoms and molecules react in simple integer ratios. A possible explanation of the integer volume ratios is that these are the same integer ratios as the particles react in. In the hydrogen-oxygen case, this means that the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms reacting is 2:1, since the volume ratio is 2:1.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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