<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

It might easily be objected that this is to make too much of a comic bauble and that Leverson’s parody is not a “critical” responseto The Sphinx at all. After all, its tone is deliberately light-hearted—at the opposite extreme from Henley’s causticsarcasm—and Leverson was among Wilde’s staunchest personal friends. (Leverson and her husband offered shelter to Wilde in 1895, when he was released on bailbetween his two trials for “gross indecency,” when no other home or hotel in London would open its doors to him. See Ellmann, 469-70). Significantly, Wildehimself was vastly amused by Leverson’s skit, perhaps seeing it as a form of tribute no less than critique: “ Punch is delightful and the drawing a masterpiece of clever caricature. I am afraid shereally was a minx after all. You are the only Sphinx” ( Complete Letters , 593). But affection is a crucial element of parody; and scholars of parody (especially of parody by women) arguethat such tendencies to love, affection, and gentleness as are displayed in Leverson's parody license rather than defuse its capacity for critique. As Wilde himself recognized, “Parody, which is the Muse with her tongue in her cheek, has alwaysamused me; but it requires a light touch and a fanciful treatment and, oddly enough, a love of the poet whom it caricatures. One’s disciples can parody one—nobody else” ( Complete Letters , 390). As Debelius states, “in Leverson’s case parody worked as a double-edged sword thatallowed her both to express her great loyalty to Wilde and to use her great wit to distance herself from those aspects of aestheticism she found distasteful….It is precisely through parody that Leverson defined herself as a writer sympathetic to aspects of aestheticism while still critiquing its masculinistpolitics…. Leverson loved Wilde enough to repeat him convincingly, but it was a repetition with a difference. And this difference carries the power ofsubversion” (Debelius, 193-96).

Leverson’s 1894 parody, then, represents one of the most important critical responses to the poem in Wilde’s own lifetime,especially from the standpoint of gender, even if acknowledging its “importance” flies in the face of a triviality or wittiness that is as cultivated as that ondisplay in Wilde’s own The Importance of Being Earnest . But if Leverson’s parody holds obvious appeal today, it heralded no sudden growth in readership of Wilde’s poem, and The Sphinx remained neglected and unread for many years into the twentieth century. There are many reasons for this neglect:Modernist writers such as Ezra Pound, Wyndham Lewis, and T. S. Eliot worked hard (and largely successfully) in the early decades of the twentieth century todenigrate the “aestheticism” of the 1890s; but even before this, Wilde’s work had been disgraced in the eyes of many readers by Wilde’s imprisonment for“gross indecency” in the spring of 1895. External causes were not wholly to blame, however; the poem’s neglect had to some extent been “willed” by the poemitself, or at least by its author and first publishers. The format of the 1894 edition embodies the book’s “strong dislike of the public”; and as we have seen,Wilde was determined that it should reach only “a small and quite unimportant sect of perfect people.” Ricketts’s designs for The Sphinx began to attract serious attention from art historians and print historians in the 1960s and 1970s, following a more general resurgence ofinterest in art nouveau, printmaking, and the arts of the book. But Wilde’s poem languished as an entity in its own right till the final decades of the twentiethcentury, when the rise in Wilde’s reputation, the growth of scholarship in book history, and increased scholarly attention to the “composite” nature or “textualcondition” of literary works all conspired to bring fresh attention to it. Important new editions of The Sphinx were produced prior to World War I in formats distinct from the first edition of 1894—notably the edition illustratedby “Alasdair” [Hans Henning von Voight], though this was not published by JohnLane till 1920; and private presses occasionally printed very limited runs of the poem, accompanied by new illustrations in each case, in the 1950s and 1960s.Crucially, however, none of these editions generated critical comment or significant new readership for the poem. At first, that attention was confined largely to the work of editors who had set out to present Wilde’s worksgenerally to a larger academic readership. But the past two decades or so have seen a number of important critical studies of Wilde’s poem, in some of whichthe questions of gender raised into prominence by Leverson’s parody are taken up, in others of which Ricketts’s powerful decorations for the first edition of1894 are seen as important constituents of meaning.

Questions & Answers

what is the meaning of function in economics
Effah Reply
Pls, I need more explanation on price Elasticity of Supply
Isaac Reply
Is the degree to the degree of responsiveness of a change in quantity supplied of goods to a change in price
Afran
Discuss the short-term and long-term balance positions of the firm in the monopoly market?
Rabindranath Reply
hey
Soumya
hi
Mitiku
how are you?
Mitiku
can you tell how can i economics honurs(BSC) in reputed college?
Soumya
through hard study and performing well than expected from you
Mitiku
what should i prepare for it?
Soumya
prepare first, in psychologically as well as potentially to sacrifice what's expected from you, when I say this I mean that you have to be ready, for every thing and to accept failure as a good and you need to change them to potential for achievement of ur goals
Mitiku
parna kya hai behencho?
Soumya
Hallo
Rabindranath
Hello, dear what's up?
Mitiku
cool
Momoh
good morning
Isaac
pls, is anyone here from Ghana?
Isaac
Hw s every one please
Afran
Ys please I'm in Ghana
Afran
what is firms
Anteyi Reply
A firm is a business entity which engages in the production of goods and aimed at making profit.
Avuwada
What is autarky in Economics.
Avuwada
what is choice
Tia Reply
So how is the perfect competition different from others
Rev Reply
what is choice
Tia
please what type of commodity is 1.Beaf 2.Suagr 3.Bread
Alfred Reply
1
Naziru
what is the difference between short run and long run?
Ukpen Reply
It just depends on how far you would like to run!!!🤣🤣🤣
Anna
meaning? You guys need not to be playing here; if you don't know a question, leave it for he that knows.
Ukpen
pls is question from which subject or which course
Ada
Is this not economics?
Ukpen
This place is meant to be for serious educational matters n not playing ground so pls let's make it a serious place.
Docky
Is there an economics expert here?
Docky
Okay and I was being serous
Anna
The short run is a period of time in which the quantity of at least one inputs is fixed...
Anna
that is the answer that I found online and in my text book
Anna
Elacisity
salihu
Meaning of economics
Suraj Reply
It will creates rooms for an effective demands.
Chinedum Reply
different between production and supply
babsnof
Hii
Suraj
hlo
eshita
What is the economic?
Suraj
Economics is a science which study human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which has an alternative use.
Mr
what is supply
babsnof
what is different between demand and supply
Debless Reply
Demand refers to the quantity of products that consumers are willing to purchase at various prices per time while Supply has to do with the quantity of products suppliers are willing to supply at various prices per time. find the difference in between
Saye
Please what are the effects of rationing Effect of black market Effects of hoarding
Atty Reply
monoply is amarket structure charecrized by asingle seller and produce a unique product in the market
Cali Reply
yes
Niraj
I want to know wen does the demand curve shift to the right
Nana
demand curve shifts to the right when there's an increase in price of a substitute or increase in income
kin
ask me anything in economics, I promise to try and do justice to the question, you can send me an email or message, I will answer
kin
what are the factor that change the curve right
Nana
explain the law of supply in simple .....
freshwater
the Law of supply: states that all factor being equal, when the price of a particular goods increase the supply will also increase, as it decreases the supply will also decrease
kin
@Nana the factor that changes or shift the d demand curve to the right is 1) the increase in price of a substitute good or commodity 2) increase in income
kin
you can send your questions I am Comr. Kin chukwuebuka
kin
different between bill of exchange n treasure bill
Nana
yes
Ada
so would you tell me what means an apportunity cost plz?
Cali
what is true cost
Akiti
your question isn't correct naadi
Anthonia
define an apportunity cost?
Cali
orukpe ,is my question whats wrong or u dont know anything?
Cali
In a simple term, it is an Alternative foregone.
Sule
opportunity cost is the next best value of a scale of preference
Akiti
Both of you are not correct.
Nelly
opportunity cost: is a forgone alternative
kin
Monopoly is where is one producer produces a given product with no close substitute
James
what is income effect?
Qwecou Reply
if you borrow $5000 to buy a car at 12 percent compounded monthly to be repaid over the next 4 year what is monthly payment
Nitish Reply
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, The sphinx. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11196/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'The sphinx' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask