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The educational administration curriculum is being recast to emphasize academic as well as applied knowledge. Training for the applied nature of educational administration has been a challenge for most graduate programs as they emphasized the academic and theoretical approach to the leadership and administration of schools. The applied nature of educational administration has defined the field since its inception and the teaching of performance behaviors has become an integral component of the educational administration curriculum. The educational administration curriculum will, in the future, reflect this aspect of teaching and learning.

This Collection has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and sanctioned by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. In addition to publication in the Connexions Content Commons, this Collection is published in the International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, Volume 4, Number 4 (October – December 2009). Formatted and edited in Connexions by Theodore Creighton, Virginia Tech.


The field of educational leadership is going through a historical shift in the way school leaders are trained. There is recognition that complex educational organizations require a deep understanding and depth of knowledge about how to improve learning for leadership. Expecting prospective leaders to provide evidence of what they know through performance activities plays to the strength of programs in educational administration. In fact, the field itself is grounded in the applied nature of being a practicing educator and school leader. In comparing the curriculum of educational administration from the last decade of the twentieth century to the first decade of the twenty-first the significant difference is in the return to the applied nature of the field reflected in performance activities required of students in their pre-service university training.

During the first decade of the 21 st century programs in educational administration were professionally oriented (some would argue directed) and engaged in curricular reform through a process of accreditation that thrust a set of standards into the development of courses and content within the traditional educational administration curriculum. The Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC, 2002) standards (originally developed by the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium and introduced 1996) have been used to focus programs in educational administration around expectations and outcomes that was a consensus of best practice and knowledge about preparing pre-service school leaders.

These standards were generally accepted as representing the broad themes of behavior, knowledge, and skill that were essential to leading and managing schools and other educational institutions. Debate raged about whether the standards were relevant and represented what the research and the literature in the field said about what educational leaders really needed to know and do (see for example, Hoyle, 2005; Murphy, 2005). Yet, regardless of one’s position in this debate, most states adopted these standards to frame both the curriculum of university-based preparation programs in educational leadership and requirements for certification/licensure as a school leader.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Performance assessment in educational leadership programs; james berry and ronald williamson, editors. OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11122/1.1
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