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The educational administration curriculum is being recast to emphasize academic as well as applied knowledge. Training for the applied nature of educational administration has been a challenge for most graduate programs as they emphasized the academic and theoretical approach to the leadership and administration of schools. The applied nature of educational administration has defined the field since its inception and the teaching of performance behaviors has become an integral component of the educational administration curriculum. The educational administration curriculum will, in the future, reflect this aspect of teaching and learning.

This Collection has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and sanctioned by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. In addition to publication in the Connexions Content Commons, this Collection is published in the International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, Volume 4, Number 4 (October – December 2009). Formatted and edited in Connexions by Theodore Creighton, Virginia Tech.


The field of educational leadership is going through a historical shift in the way school leaders are trained. There is recognition that complex educational organizations require a deep understanding and depth of knowledge about how to improve learning for leadership. Expecting prospective leaders to provide evidence of what they know through performance activities plays to the strength of programs in educational administration. In fact, the field itself is grounded in the applied nature of being a practicing educator and school leader. In comparing the curriculum of educational administration from the last decade of the twentieth century to the first decade of the twenty-first the significant difference is in the return to the applied nature of the field reflected in performance activities required of students in their pre-service university training.

During the first decade of the 21 st century programs in educational administration were professionally oriented (some would argue directed) and engaged in curricular reform through a process of accreditation that thrust a set of standards into the development of courses and content within the traditional educational administration curriculum. The Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC, 2002) standards (originally developed by the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium and introduced 1996) have been used to focus programs in educational administration around expectations and outcomes that was a consensus of best practice and knowledge about preparing pre-service school leaders.

These standards were generally accepted as representing the broad themes of behavior, knowledge, and skill that were essential to leading and managing schools and other educational institutions. Debate raged about whether the standards were relevant and represented what the research and the literature in the field said about what educational leaders really needed to know and do (see for example, Hoyle, 2005; Murphy, 2005). Yet, regardless of one’s position in this debate, most states adopted these standards to frame both the curriculum of university-based preparation programs in educational leadership and requirements for certification/licensure as a school leader.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Performance assessment in educational leadership programs; james berry and ronald williamson, editors. OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11122/1.1
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