Neuroanatomy 13 The Hypothalamus


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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Neuroanatomy 13 The Hypothalamus
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16 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Neuroanatomy 13 The Hypothalamus Quiz

Question: The capillaries in the median eminence:


Are sealed off by tight junctions, like most capillaries in the brain.

Are fenestrated capillaries like the kidney.

Simple fenestrated capillaries.

Question: Horner's Syndrome consists of miosis, ptosis, and anhidrosis. These can all be explained as due to the interruption of:


Nerve III.

Oculomotor nucleus.

Hypothalamospinal and reticulospinal fibers.

Tuberal nuclei in the hypothalamus.

Question: A portal system is a system of vascular drainage that communicates between arteries and veins.




Question: Horner's Syndrome can result from:


Interruption of hypothalamospinal tract in the medulla.

Lesion of superior cervical ganglion.

Thoracic spinal cord lesion.

Lesion of sympathetic chain in thoracic region.

All of the above.

Question: The third ventricle is surrounded by the following structures with the EXCEPTION of:


Anterior commissure.


Posterior Commissure.

Choroid plexus.

Optic tract.

Question: What is the tuberoinfundibular tract?


A tract carrying releasing hormones.

A tract carrying ADH and Oxytocin.

A tract carrying nerve impulses to the adenohypophysis.

A & B.

A, B & C.

Question: The hypothalamohypophyseal tract


Contains hormones packaged as granules.

Results in diabetes insipidus when severed.

Is involved in the milk letdown reflex.

Transmits nerve impulses that result in hormonal release.

All of the above.

Question: Which set of cranial nerves contains preganglionic parasympathetic axons.


V, VII, IX, X.




Question: How does the region marked by the arrow communicate with the spinal cord?


Hypothalamotegmental tract.

Hypothalamoreticular tract.

Reticulospinal tract.

Hypothalamospinal tract.

All of the above.

Question: Preganglionic sympathetic cell bodies are located in:


Intermediate or lateral horn (T1-L2).

Intermediate or lateral horn (S2-5).

Both A and B

Edinger-Westphal, salivatory and dorsal motor nucleus of X.

Question: Tuberal nuclei are located in:



Median eminence.


Anterior lobe of pituitary.

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Disclaimer:  This course does NOT provide the education or experience needed for the diagnosing or treating any medical condition, all site contents are provided as general information only and should not be taken as a medical advice.
Source:  Stephen C. Voron, M.D., Suzanne S. Stensaas, Ph.D. , Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah, School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132,
Savannah Parrish
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