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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Exam PDF eBook: 
NCE- Theories in Counseling & Helping Relationship
Download NCE Ch 05 Exam PDF eBook
200 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the NCE- Theories in Counseling & Helping Relationship Exam

Question: Freudians refer to the ego as


the executive administrator of the personality and the reality principle

the guardian angel of the mind

the pleasure principle

the seat of libido

Question: Frued's theory speaks of Eros Thantos. A client who threatens a self- destructive act is being ruled primarily by



Eros and the id


both Eros and Thanatos

Question: In transactional analysis, the ____________ is the conscience, or ego state concerned with moral behavior, while in Freudian theory it is the ____________.


Adult; unconscious

Parent; ego

Parent; superego

Parent; id

Question: Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, which is both a form of treatment and very comprehensive personality theory. According to Freud's theory inborn drives (mainly sexual) help form the personality. ____________ and ____________ who originally worked with Freud, created individual psychology and analytic psychology, respectively.


Carl Jung; Alfred Adler

Alfred Adler; Carl Jung

Joseph Breuer; A.A. Brill

Alfred Adler; Rollo May

Question: A therapist who says to a patient, " Say whatever comes to mind," is practicing


directive counseling



free association

Question: Eric Berne's transactional analysis(TA) posits three ego states: the Child, the Adult, and the Parent. These roughly correspond to Freud's structural theory that includes


oral, anal, phallic

unconscious, preconscious, and conscious

a and b

id, ego, and superego

Question: Freud felt that successful resolution of the Oedipus complex led to the development of the superego. This is accomplished by


identification with the aggressor, the parent of the same sex

analysis during the childhood years

identification with the parent of the opposite sex, the aggressor


Question: The id present at birth and never matures. It operates mainly out of awareness to satisfy instinctual needs according to the


reality principle

notion of transference

Eros Principle

pleasure principle

Question: If you think of the mind as a seesaw, then the fulcrum or balancing apparatus would be the


id, which has no concept of rationality or time


superego, which judges behavior as right or wrong


Question: The superego contain the ego ideal. The superego strives for ______________, rather than __________ like the id.


perfection; pleasure

pleasure; perfection

morals; ethics

logic; reality

Question: A therapist who says to a patient, " Say whatever comes to mind," is practicing


directive counseling



free association

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Madison Christian
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