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Chapter 0: Introduction to sociology 2e

Preface Read Online

About openstax

OpenStax is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of modern college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations.

About this book

Welcome to Introduction to Sociology 2e , an OpenStax resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong foundation in sociology. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions.

To broaden access and encourage community curation, Introduction to Sociology 2e is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at

To the student

This book is written for you and is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous sociologists. In today’s global socially networked world, the topic of sociology is more relevant than ever before. We hope that through this book, you will learn how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world. In this book, you will find applications of sociology concepts that are relevant, current, and balanced.

To the instructor

This text is intended for a one-semester introductory course. Since current events influence our social perspectives and the field of sociology in general, OpenStax encourages instructors to keep this book fresh by sending in your up-to-date examples to so that students and instructors around the country can relate and engage in fruitful discussions.

General approach

Introduction to Sociology 2e adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences.

Changes to the second edition

Part of the mission of the second edition update was to ensure the research, examples and concepts used in this textbook are current and relevant to today’s student. To this end, we have rewritten the introduction of each chapter to reflect the latest developments in sociology, history and global culture. In addition to new graphs and images, the reader of the second edition will find new feature boxes on a diverse array of topics, which has been one of the goals of the update—bringing the world into greater focus through case studies on global culture.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
NCE- Social and Cultural Foundations
Download NCE Ch 04 Quiz PDF eBook
100 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the NCE- Social and Cultural Foundations Quiz

Question: In the United States, each socioeconomic group represents


a separate race

a separate culture

the silent middle class

a separate national culture

Question: Culture refers to


customs shared by a group which distinguished it from other groups

values shared by a group that are learned from others in the group

attitudes, beliefs, art, and language which characterize members of a group

all of the above

Question: In order to diagnose clients from a different culture


the counselor ideally will need some information regarding the specifics of the culture

the counselor will find the DSM useless

the counselor will find the ICD diagnosis useless

NBCC ethics prohibit the use of the DSM diagnosis when counseling clients from another culture

Question: APGA, which became the AACD until 1992 and is now the ACA, contributed to the growth of cross-cultural counseling


the 1972 formation of the Association for Non-White Concerns in Personnel and Guidance, later known as the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development

the 1972 ethic which made it unethical to see culturally different clients without three hours relevant graduate work in this area

the 1972 ethic which required a 3,000-hour practicum in order to work with culturally different clients

urging nonwhites to take graduate counseling courses

Question: Which therapist was not instrumental in the early years of the social psychology movement?






Question: _________________ believe that aggression is learned. Thus, a child who witness aggressive behavior in adults may imitate the aggressive behavior


Instinct theorist

Innate aggression theorists

Social learning theorists

Followers of Erik Erikson

Question: Our culture is more diverse than in the past. Multicultural counselors often work with persons who are culturally different. This means the client


is culturally biased

suffers from the diagnosis of cultural relativity

belongs to a different culture from the helper

presents problems which deal only with culturally charged issues

Question: Culture refers to


customs shared by a group which distinguish it from other groups

values shared by a group that are learned from others in the group

attitudes , beliefs, art, and language which characterize members of group

all of the above

Question: The three factors which enhance interpersonal attraction are


assertiveness, anxiety, ego strength

close proximity, physical attraction, similar beliefs

culture, race, assertiveness

ego strength, anxiety, race


Question: Daniel Levinson proposed a theory with several major life transitions. He


is the Father of Multicultural Counseling

wrote the 1978 classic Season's of a Man's Life and the sequel Seasons of a Woman's Life in 1997

postulated a midlife crisis for men between ages 40-45 and for women approximately five years earlier

b and c

Question: ___________ and _____________ would say that regardless of culture, humans have an instinct to fight


Maslow; Rogers

Ellis; Harper

Freud; Lorenz

Glasser; Rogers

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