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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
NCE: Counseling Families, Diagnosis, and
Download NCE Ch 11 Quiz PDF eBook
150 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the NCE: Counseling Families, Diagnosis, and Advanced Quiz

Question: Virginia Satir felt that a major goal of therapy was to improve intrafamily communication (i.e., communication between family members). According to Satir, four basic patterns prevented good communication under stress. These defensive postures or stress positions are: placating, blaming, being overly reasonable, and being irrelevant. Placating means


you disagree with all the other family members

you pick a favorite family member and agree with him or her.

you ignore the other family members

you try to please everybody out of a fear of rejection

Question: A married couple brings their two children to counseling for behavioral problems. The 14-year-old daughter stays out late and their 17-year-old son is using drugs. According to most marriage and family therapists the identifi ed patient would be


the 17-year-old son

the 14-year old-daughter.

the family

both children.

Question: Adaptability is the ability of the family to balance


ego strength.

stability and change

morphostasis and morphogenesis.

b and c

Question: Experiential conjoint family therapy is closely related to the work of


Virginia Satir

Albert Ellis.

Jay Haley.

Salvador Minuchin, the father of structural family therapy.

Question: Family counselors generally believe in


circular/reciprocal causality (e.g., dynamics of family members).

linear causality.

random causality.

dream analysis

Question: You are seeing a husband and wife for marriage counseling. During one of the sessions you decide to see them separately. The husband tells you he has seen an attorney because he is fi ling for divorce. He has not told his wife and indicates that he will not do so. You feel the wife has a right to know this because it will help her plan for the future. You should


Question: You are supervising a licensing candidate who is primarily interested in marriage and family counseling. You are very attracted to her and have sex with her. According to ethics guidelines


this is perfectly ethical, since this is a student and not a client.

this is unethical.

this is perfectly ethical, since this is a supervisee and not a client.

a and c are both correct.

Question: A family that is stable and reaches an equilibrium is in a state of






Question: The fastest growing clientele for professional counselors are person


experiencing bipolar disorder

experiencing suicidal ideation

experiencing marriage and family problem

who abuse their children

Question: A family wants to see you for counseling; however, they have a very limited income and can’t afford to pay. You therefore agree to see the family for free (i.e., pro bono). The term that best describes your actions would be


aspirational ethics

mandatory ethics


all of the above.

Question: Cybernetics is a concept used by family therapists. It is usually associated with the work of


Freud and Ellis

Norbert Wiener.

Virginia Satir

behavioral family therapists and cognitive family therapists

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