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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
NC: LIfestyle and Career Development
Download NCE Ch 07 Quiz PDF eBook
100 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the NC: LIfestyle and Career Development Quiz

Question: One trend is that women are moving into more careers that in the past were populated by males. Women workers are often impacted by the "glass ceiling phenomenon." Assuming that a counselor's behavior is influenced by the phenomenon, which statement would he most likely make when conducting a career counseling session with a female client who wants to advance to a higher position?


"Your ability to advance in the corporate world is generally based on your mother's attitude toward work. Can you tell me a little about that?"

"Actually, women can advance quite rapidly in the corporate world. I support 100%. I'd say you should be optimistic and go for the position."

"Let's be rational: A woman can only advance so far. You really have very little if any chance of becoming a corporate executive. I'm here to help you cope with this reality."

"In most cases a female will work in a position that is at the same level as her father. Did your dad ever work as a corporate executive?

Question: Lifestyle and career development have been emphasized


only since the late 1950s

only since the late 1960s

only since nondirective counseling became popular

since the beginning of the counseling and guidance movement and are still major areas of concern

Question: When professional career counselors use the term leisure they technically mean


the client is having fun at work or away from work

the client is relaxing at work or away from work

the client is working at less than 100% capacity at work or away from work

the time the client has away from work which is not being utilized for obligations

Question: Statistics reveal that


on average a worker with a bachelor's degree earns over $10K a year more than a worker with a high school diploma

fewer workers possess a high-school degree than ever before

blue-collar jobs are growing faster than white-collar jobs

older workers are slower than younger workers and have less skill

Question: Studies indicate that


students receive ample vocational guidance

most parents can provide appropriate vocational guidance

students want more vocational guidance than they receive

career days meet the vocational guidance needs of most students

Question: One Major category of career theory is known as the train-factor (also called the trait-and-factor) approach. It has also been dubbed the actuarial or matching approach. This approach


attempts to match conscious and unconscious work motives

attempts to match the worker and the work environment (job factors). The approach thus makes the assumption that there is one best or single career for the person.

attempts to match career behavior with attitudes

attempts to match cognition with the workload

Question: Most research in the area of career development and its relationship to students indicates that


a very high proportion of student in high school and at the junior high or middle-school level wanted guidance in planning a career. Career interests are more stable after college

students did not want career guidance despite its importance

many students were too inflexible to benefit from career guidance

high school students wanted career guidance but junior high school or middle-school students did not.

Question: In term of leisure time and dual-career families


dual-career families have more leisure time

dual-career families have the same amount of leisure time as families with one wage earner

dual-career families have less leisure time

dual-career families have more weekend leisure time

Question: IN the dual-career family, partners seem to be more self-sufficient than in the traditional family. IN a dual-career household the woman


generally has children before entering the work force

rarely if ever has children

is not self-reliant

is typically secure in her career before she has children

Question: A client who says, " I feel I cannot really become an administrator in our agency because I am a woman," is showing an example of


gender bias

counselor bias

the trait-and-factor theory

developmental theory and career advice

Question: A dual-career family (or dual worker couple) is one in which both partners have jobs to which they are committed on a somewhat continuous basis. Which statement is true of dual -career families


Surprisingly enough, dual career families have lower incomes than families in which only one partner works

Dual -career families have higher incomes than the so called traditional family in which only one partner is working

Dual -Career families have incomes which almost identical to families which one partner working

Surprisingly enough, no research has been conducted on dual - career families

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