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Survey XP spectrum of F-DWNTs (O. Kuznetsov, Rice University).

Subsequently, high resolution scans of the peaks can be obtained to give more information. Elements of the same kind in different states and environments have slightly different characteristic binding energies. Computer software is used to fit peaks within the elemental peak which represent different states of the same element, commonly called deconvolution of the elemental peak. [link] and [link] show high resolutions scans of C1s and F1s peaks, respectively, from [link] , along with the peak designations.

Deconvoluted high resolution C1s spectrum of F-DWNTs (O. Kuznetsov, Rice University).
Deconvoluted high resolution F1s spectrum of F-DWNTs (O. Kuznetsov, Rice University).

Limitations

Both hydrogen and helium cannot be detected using XPS. For this reason, XPS can provide only relative, rather than absolute, ratios of elements in a sample. Also, elements with relatively low atomic percentages close to that of the detection limit or low detection by XPS may not be seen in the spectrum. Furthermore, each peak represents a distribution of observed binding energies of ejected electrons based on the depth of the atom from which they originate, as well as the state of the atom. Electrons from atoms deeper in the sample must travel through the above layers before being liberated and detected, which reduces their kinetic energies and thus increases their apparent binding energies. The width of the peaks in the spectrum consequently depends on the thickness of the sample and the depth to which the XPS can detect; therefore, the values obtained vary slightly depending on the depth of the atom. Additionally, the depth to which XPS can analyze depends on the element being detected.

High resolution scans of a peak can be used to distinguish among species of the same element. However, the identification of different species is discretionary. Computer programs are used to deconvolute the elemental peak. The peaks may then be assigned to particular species, but the peaks may not correspond with species in the sample. As such, the data obtained must be used cautiously, and care should be taken to avoid over-analyzing data.

Xps for carbon nanomaterials

Despite the aforementioned limitations, XPS is a powerful surface technique that can be used to accurately detect the presence and relative quantities of elements in a sample. Further analysis can provide information about the state and environment of atoms in the sample, which can be used to infer information about the surface structure of the material. This is particularly useful for carbon nanomaterials, in which surface structure and composition greatly influence the properties of the material. There is much research interest in modifying carbon nanomaterials to modulate their properties for use in many different applications.

Sample preparation

Carbon nanomaterials present certain issues in regard to sample preparation. The use of graphite tape is a poor option for carbon nanomaterials because the spectra will show peaks from the graphite tape, adding to the carbon peak and potentially skewing or overwhelming the data. Instead, a thin indium foil (between 0.1 and 0.5 mm thick) is used as the sample substrate. The sample is simply pressed onto a piece of the foil.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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