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Survey XP spectrum of F-DWNTs (O. Kuznetsov, Rice University).

Subsequently, high resolution scans of the peaks can be obtained to give more information. Elements of the same kind in different states and environments have slightly different characteristic binding energies. Computer software is used to fit peaks within the elemental peak which represent different states of the same element, commonly called deconvolution of the elemental peak. [link] and [link] show high resolutions scans of C1s and F1s peaks, respectively, from [link] , along with the peak designations.

Deconvoluted high resolution C1s spectrum of F-DWNTs (O. Kuznetsov, Rice University).
Deconvoluted high resolution F1s spectrum of F-DWNTs (O. Kuznetsov, Rice University).

Limitations

Both hydrogen and helium cannot be detected using XPS. For this reason, XPS can provide only relative, rather than absolute, ratios of elements in a sample. Also, elements with relatively low atomic percentages close to that of the detection limit or low detection by XPS may not be seen in the spectrum. Furthermore, each peak represents a distribution of observed binding energies of ejected electrons based on the depth of the atom from which they originate, as well as the state of the atom. Electrons from atoms deeper in the sample must travel through the above layers before being liberated and detected, which reduces their kinetic energies and thus increases their apparent binding energies. The width of the peaks in the spectrum consequently depends on the thickness of the sample and the depth to which the XPS can detect; therefore, the values obtained vary slightly depending on the depth of the atom. Additionally, the depth to which XPS can analyze depends on the element being detected.

High resolution scans of a peak can be used to distinguish among species of the same element. However, the identification of different species is discretionary. Computer programs are used to deconvolute the elemental peak. The peaks may then be assigned to particular species, but the peaks may not correspond with species in the sample. As such, the data obtained must be used cautiously, and care should be taken to avoid over-analyzing data.

Xps for carbon nanomaterials

Despite the aforementioned limitations, XPS is a powerful surface technique that can be used to accurately detect the presence and relative quantities of elements in a sample. Further analysis can provide information about the state and environment of atoms in the sample, which can be used to infer information about the surface structure of the material. This is particularly useful for carbon nanomaterials, in which surface structure and composition greatly influence the properties of the material. There is much research interest in modifying carbon nanomaterials to modulate their properties for use in many different applications.

Sample preparation

Carbon nanomaterials present certain issues in regard to sample preparation. The use of graphite tape is a poor option for carbon nanomaterials because the spectra will show peaks from the graphite tape, adding to the carbon peak and potentially skewing or overwhelming the data. Instead, a thin indium foil (between 0.1 and 0.5 mm thick) is used as the sample substrate. The sample is simply pressed onto a piece of the foil.

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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