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Schematic diagram of a MPMSR. Adapted from L. Fagaly, Review of Scientific Instruments , 2006, 77 , 101101.

The use of a variable temperature insert can allow measurements to be made over a wide range 1.8–400 K. Typically, the sample temperature is controlled by helium gas flowing slowly past the sample. The temperature of this gas is regulated using a heater located below the sample measuring region and a thermometer located above the sample region. This arrangement ensures that the entire region has reached thermal equilibrium prior to data acquisition. The helium gas is obtained from normal evaporation in the Dewar, and its flow rate is controlled by a precision regulating valve.

Signal output of an MPMS. Adapted from L. Fagaly, Review of Scientific Instruments , 2006, 77 , 101101.

Procedures when using an mpms

Calibration

The magnetic moment calibration for the SQUID is determined by measuring a palladium standard over a range of magnetic fields and then by adjusting to obtain the correct moment for the standard. The palladium standard samples are effectively point sources with an accuracy of approximately 0.1%.

Sample mounting considerations

The type, size and geometry of a sample is usually sufficient to determine the method you use to attach it to the sample. However mostly for MPMS measurements a plastic straw is used. This is due to the straw having minimal magnetic susceptibility.

However there are a few important considerations for the sample holder design when mounting a sample for measurement in a magnetometer. The sample holder can be a major contributor to the background signal. Its contribution can be minimized by choosing materials with low magnetic susceptibility and by keeping the mass to a minimum such as a plastic straw mentioned above.

The materials used to hold a sample must perform well over the temperature range to be used. In a MPMS, the geometric arrangement of the background and sample is critical when their magnetic susceptibilities will be of similar magnitude. Thus, the sample holder should optimize the sample’s positioning in the magnetometer. A sample should be mounted rigidly in order to avoid excess sample motion during measurement. A sample holder should also allow easy access for mounting the sample, and its background contribution should be easy to measure. This advisory introduces some mounting methods and discusses some of the more important considerations when mounting samples for the MPMS magnetometer. Keep in mind that these are only recommendations, not guaranteed procedures. The researcher is responsible for assuring that the methods and materials used will meet experimental requirements.

Sample mounts

Platform mounting

For many types of samples, mounting to a platform is the most convenient method. The platform’s mass and susceptibility should be as small as possible in order to minimize its background contribution and signal distortion.

Plastic disc

A plastic disc about 2 mm thick with an outside diameter equivalent to the pliable plastic tube’s diameter (a clear drinking straw is suitable) is inserted and twisted into place. The platform should be fairly rigid. Mount samples onto this platform with glue. Place a second disc, with a diameter slightly less than the inside diameter of the tube and with the same mass, on top of the sample to help provide the desired symmetry. Pour powdered samples onto the platform and place a second disc on top. The powders will be able to align with the field. Make sure the sample tube is capped and ventilated.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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