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Introduction

The processes which occur at the surfaces of crystals depend on many external and internal factors such as crystal structure and composition, conditions of a medium where the crystal surface exists and others. The appearance of a crystal surface is the result of complexity of interactions between the crystal surface and the environment. The mechanisms of surface processes such as dissolution or growth are studied by the physical chemistry of surfaces. There are a lot of computational techniques which allows us to predict the changing of surface morphology of different minerals which are influenced by different conditions such as temperature, pressure, pH and chemical composition of solution reacting with the surface. For example, Monte Carlo method is widely used to simulate the dissolution or growth of crystals. However, the theoretical models of surface processes need to be verified by natural observations. We can extract a lot of useful information about the surface processes through studying the changing of crystal surface structure under influence of environmental conditions. The changes in surface structure can be studied through the observation of crystal surface topography. The topography can be directly observed macroscopically or by using microscopic techniques. Microscopic observation allows us to study even very small changes and estimate the rate of processes by observing changing the crystal surface topography in time.

Much laboratory worked under the reconstruction of surface changes and interpretation of dissolution and precipitation kinetics of crystals. Invention of AFM made possible to monitor changes of surface structure during dissolution or growth. However, to detect and quantify the results of dissolution processes or growth it is necessary to determine surface area changes over a significantly larger field of view than AFM can provide. More recently, vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) has been developed as new tool to distinguish and trace the reactive parts of crystal surfaces. VSI and AFM are complementary techniques and practically well suited to detect surface changes.

VSI technique provides a method for quantification of surface topography at the angstrom to nanometer level. Time-dependent VSI measurements can be used to study the surface-normal retreat across crystal and other solid surfaces during dissolution process. Therefore, VSI can be used to directly and nondirectly measure mineral dissolution rates with high precision. Analogically, VSI can be used to study kinetics of crystal growth.

Physical principles of optical interferometry

Optical interferometry allows us to make extremely accurate measurements and has been used as a laboratory technique for almost a hundred years. Thomas Young observed interference of light and measured the wavelength of light in an experiment, performed around 1801. This experiment gave an evidence of Young's arguments for the wave model for light. The discovery of interference gave a basis to development of interferomertry techniques widely successfully used as in microscopic investigations, as in astronomic investigations.

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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