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Introduction

The processes which occur at the surfaces of crystals depend on many external and internal factors such as crystal structure and composition, conditions of a medium where the crystal surface exists and others. The appearance of a crystal surface is the result of complexity of interactions between the crystal surface and the environment. The mechanisms of surface processes such as dissolution or growth are studied by the physical chemistry of surfaces. There are a lot of computational techniques which allows us to predict the changing of surface morphology of different minerals which are influenced by different conditions such as temperature, pressure, pH and chemical composition of solution reacting with the surface. For example, Monte Carlo method is widely used to simulate the dissolution or growth of crystals. However, the theoretical models of surface processes need to be verified by natural observations. We can extract a lot of useful information about the surface processes through studying the changing of crystal surface structure under influence of environmental conditions. The changes in surface structure can be studied through the observation of crystal surface topography. The topography can be directly observed macroscopically or by using microscopic techniques. Microscopic observation allows us to study even very small changes and estimate the rate of processes by observing changing the crystal surface topography in time.

Much laboratory worked under the reconstruction of surface changes and interpretation of dissolution and precipitation kinetics of crystals. Invention of AFM made possible to monitor changes of surface structure during dissolution or growth. However, to detect and quantify the results of dissolution processes or growth it is necessary to determine surface area changes over a significantly larger field of view than AFM can provide. More recently, vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) has been developed as new tool to distinguish and trace the reactive parts of crystal surfaces. VSI and AFM are complementary techniques and practically well suited to detect surface changes.

VSI technique provides a method for quantification of surface topography at the angstrom to nanometer level. Time-dependent VSI measurements can be used to study the surface-normal retreat across crystal and other solid surfaces during dissolution process. Therefore, VSI can be used to directly and nondirectly measure mineral dissolution rates with high precision. Analogically, VSI can be used to study kinetics of crystal growth.

Physical principles of optical interferometry

Optical interferometry allows us to make extremely accurate measurements and has been used as a laboratory technique for almost a hundred years. Thomas Young observed interference of light and measured the wavelength of light in an experiment, performed around 1801. This experiment gave an evidence of Young's arguments for the wave model for light. The discovery of interference gave a basis to development of interferomertry techniques widely successfully used as in microscopic investigations, as in astronomic investigations.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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