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Raman Spectroscopy can be successfully employed to study Carbon nanotubes at single nanotube level. Length, diameter, electronic type (metallic or semiconducting), and whether nanotubes are separated or in bundle can be known by the use of Raman Spectroscopy.

Introduction

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have proven to be a unique system for the application of Raman spectroscopy, and at the same time Raman spectroscopy has provided an exceedingly powerful tool useful in the study of the vibrational properties and electronic structures of CNTs. Raman spectroscopy has been successfully applied for studying CNTs at single nanotube level.

The large van der Waals interactions between the CNTs lead to an agglomeration of the tubes in the form of bundles or ropes. This problem can be solved by wrapping the tubes in a surfactant or functionalizing the SWNTs by attaching appropriate chemical moieties to the sidewalls of the tube. Functionalization causes a local change in the hybridization from sp 2 to sp 3 of the side-wall carbon atoms, and Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine this change. In addition information on length, diameter, electronic type (metallic or semiconducting), and whether nanotubes are separated or in bundle can be obtained by the use of Raman spectroscopy. Recent progress in understanding the Raman spectra of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have stimulated Raman studies of more complicated multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT), but unfortunately quantitative determination of the latter is not possible at the present state of art.

Characterizing swnts

Raman spectroscopy is a single resonance process, i.e., the signals are greatly enhanced if either the incoming laser energy ( E laser ) or the scattered radiation matches an allowed electronic transition in the sample. For this process to occur, the phonon modes are assumed to occur at the center of the Brillouin zone (q = 0). Owing to their one dimensional nature, the Π-electronic density of states of a perfect, infinite, SWNTs form sharp singularities which are known as van Hove singularities (vHs), which are energetically symmetrical with respect to Fermi level ( E f ) of the individual SWNTs. The allowed optical transitions occur between matching vHs of the valence and conduction band of the SWNTs, i.e., from first valence band vHs to the first conduction band vHs ( E 11 ) or from the second vHs of the valence band to the second vHs of the conduction band ( E 22 ). Since the quantum state of an electron (k) remains the same during the transition, it is referred to as k-selection rule.

The electronic properties, and therefore the individual transition energies in SWNTs are given by their structure, i.e., by their chiral vector that determines the way SWNT is rolled up to form a cylinder. [link] shows a SWNT having vector R making an angle θ, known as the chiral angle, with the so-called zigzag or r 1 direction.

The unrolled honeycomb lattice of a nanotube. When the sites O and A, and the sites B and C are connected, a portion of a graphene sheet can be rolled seamlessly to form a SWNT. The vectors OA and OB define the chiral vector R of the nanotube, respectively. The rectangle OABC defines the unit cell if the nanotube. The figure is constructed for ( n,m ) = (4,2) nanotube. Adapted from M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, R. Saito, and A. Jorio, Physics Reports , 2004, 2 , 47.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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