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A brief overview of the kinds of instruments used in nanotechnology research, including the scanning tunneling microscope and the atomic force microscope.
"This module was developed as part of a Rice University Class called " Nanotechnology: Content and Context " initially funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. EEC-0407237. It was conceived, researched, written and edited by students in the Fall 2005 version of the class, and reviewed by participating professors."
Dell Butcher Hall, home of the SEA fish tank, where the SEM, AFM, and STM reside.

Introduction

Light microscopes are used in a number of areas such as medicine, science, and engineering. However, light microscopes cannot give us the high magnifications needed to see the tiniest objects like atoms. As the study of both microstructures and macrostructures of materials have come to the forefront of materials research and development new methods and equipment have been developed. Both the usage of electrons and atomic force rather than light permits advanced degrees of observations than would allow an optical microscope. As the interest in new materials in general and nanomaterials in particular is growing alternatives to optical microscopy are proving fundamental to the advancement of nanoscale science and technology.

Scanning electron microscope

SEM: A Brief History

The scanning electron microscope is an incredible tool for seeing the unseen worlds of microspace. The scanning electron microscope reveals new levels of detail and complexity in the world of micro-organisms and miniature structures. While conventional light microscopes use a series of glass lenses to bend light waves and create a magnified image, the scanning electron microscope creates magnified images by using electrons instead of light waves.

One of the first SEMs

The earliest known work describing the conceptualization of the scanning electron microscope was in 1935 by M. Knoll who, along with other pioneers in the field of electron optics, was working in Germany. Although it was Manfred von Ardenne who laid the foundations of both transmission and surface scanning electron microscopy just before World War II, it is Charles Oatley who is recognized as the great innovator of scanning electron microscopy. Oatley’s involvement with the SEM began immediately after World War II when, his recent wartime experience in the development of radar, allowed him to develop new techniques that could be brought to overcome some of the fundamental problems encountered by von Ardenne in his pre-war research.

Von Ardenne (1938) constructed a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) by adding scan coils to a transmission electron microscope. [1] In the late 1940s Oatley, then a lecturer in the Engineering Department of Cambridge University, England, showed interest in conducting research in the field of electron optics and decided to re-investigate the SEM as an accompaniment to the work being done on the TEM (by V. E. Cosslett, also being developed in Cambridge at the Physics Department). One of Oatley's students, Ken Sander, began working on a column for a transmission electron microscope using electrostatic lenses, but after a long period of illness was forced to suspend his research. His work then was taken up by Dennis McMullan in 1948, when he and Oatley built their first SEM by 1951. By 1952 this instrument had achieved a resolution of 50 nm.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Nanotechnology: content and context. OpenStax CNX. May 09, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10418/1.1
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