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Subsequent Fe and Cu ICP-AES of the samples will allow the determination of Fe:Cu ratio that is present in the nanoparticle. This can be compared to the ratio of Fe and Cu that was applied as reactants. The graph [link] shows how the percentage of Fe in the nanoparticle changes as a function of how much Fe is used as a reagent.

Percentage iron in nanoparticles
Change in iron percentage in the Fe-Cu-O nanoparticles as a function of how much iron precursor is used in the synthesis of the nanoparticles.

Determining analyte concentration

Once the nanoparticles are digested and the ICP-AES analysis has been completed you must turn the figures from the ICP-AES analysis into working numbers to determine the concentration of metals in the solution that was synthesized initially.

Let's first consider the nanoparticles that are of one metal alone. The figure given by the analysis in this case is given in units of mg/L, this is the value in ppm's. This figure was recorded for the solution that was analyzed, and this is of a dilute concentration compared to the initial synthesized solution because the particles had to be digested in acid first, then diluted further into nanopure water.

As mentioned above in the experimental 0.5 mL of the synthesized nanoparticles were first digested in 9.5 mL of concentrated nitric acid. Then when the digestion was complete 0.5 mL of this solution was dissolved in 9.5 mL of nanopure water. This was the final solution that was analyzed using ICP, and the concentration of metal in this solution will be far lower than that of the original solution. In this case the amount of analyte in the final solution being analyzed is 1/20 th that of the total amount of material in the solution that was originally synthesized.

Calculating concentration in ppm

Let us take an example that upon analysis by ICP-AES the amount of Fe detected is 6.38 mg/L. First convert the figure to mg/mL, using [link] ,

The amount of material was diluted to a total volume of 10 mL. Therefore we should multiply this value by 10 mL to see how much mass was in the whole container, [link] .

This is the total mass of iron that was present in the solution that was analyzed using the ICP device. To convert this amount to ppm we should take into consideration the fact that 0.5 mL was initially diluted to 10 mL, to do this we should divide the total mass of iron by this amount that it was diluted to, [link] .

This was the total amount of analyte in the 10 mL solution that was analyzed by the ICP device, to attain the value in ppm it should be mulitplied by a thousand, that is then 127.6 ppm of Fe.

Determining concentration of original solution

We now need to factor in the fact that there were several dilutions of the original solution first to digest the metals and then to dissolve them in nanopure water, in all there were two dilutions and each dilution was equivalent in mass. By diluting 0.5 mL to 10 mL , we are effectively diluting the solution by a factor of 20, and this was carried out twice, i.e., [link] .

This is the amount of analyte in the solution of digested particles, to covert this to ppm we should multiply it by 1/1000 mL/L, in the following way:

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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