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Considering the case of a proton under the influence of an external magnetic field, it will be in one of two possible energy states depending on the orientation of the precession axis. If the axis is parallel to B o , the proton is in the lower energy state (preferred state) and in the higher energy state if anti-parallel shown by [link] .

Alignment of precession axis. Copyright: Halliburton Energy Services, Duncan, OK (1999).

We define the net magnetization per unit volume of material, M o , from Curie’s law as [link] , where N = number of protons, h = Planck's constant (6.626 x 10 -34 Js), I = spin quantum number of the nucleus, k = Boltzmann's constant (1.381 x 10 -23 m 2 Kg s -2 K -1 ), and T = temperature (K)

M o N γ 2 h 2 I I 1 B o 12 Π 2 k T

T 1 Relaxation

The protons are said to be polarized completely once they are all aligned with the static external field. Polarization grows with a time constant called the longitudinal relaxation time (T 1 ) as shown in [link] , where t = time of exposure to B o , M z (t) = magnitude of magnetization at time t, with B o along z-axis and T 1 = time at which M z (t) reaches 90% of its final value, i.e., M o .

M z ( t ) = M o ( 1 e t T 1 ) size 12{M rSub { size 8{z} } \( t \) =M rSub { size 8{o} } \( 1 - e rSup { size 8{ { { - t} over {T rSub { size 6{1} } } } } } \) } {}

T 1 is the time at which M z (t) reaches 63% of its final value, M o . A typical T 1 relaxation experiment involves application of a 90 o RF pulse that rotates the magnetization to the transverse direction. With time, the magnetization returns to its original value in the same fashion described by the above equation.

Click on the video below to see the mechanism of T 1 relaxation

T 1 relaxation mechanism.

T 2 Relaxation

Once the polarization is complete, the magnetization direction is tipped from the longitudinal plane to a transverse plane by applying an oscillating field B 1 perpendicular to B o . The frequency of B­­ 1 must equal the Larmor frequency of the material from B o . This oscillating field causes a possible change in energy state, and in-phase precession. The total phenomenon is called nuclear magnetic resonance as shown in [link] .

A schematic representation of the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance. Copyright: Halliburton Energy Services, Duncan, OK (1999).

The oscillating field is generally pulsed in nature and so terms in books such a 180 o pulse or 90 o pulse indicates the angle through which the net magnetization gets tipped over. Application of a 90 o pulse causes precession in the transverse phase. When the field B­ 1 is removed, the nuclei begin to de-phase and the net magnetization decreases. Here a receiver coil detects the decaying signal in a process called free induction decay (FID) . This exponential decay has an FID time constant (T 2 ) which is in the order of microseconds.

The time constant of the transverse relaxation is referred as T 2 , and the amplitude of the decaying signal is given by [link] , with symbols as defined earlier.

M x ( t ) = M o e t T 2 size 12{M rSub { size 8{x} } \( t \) `=`M rSub { size 8{o} } `e rSup { size 8{ { { - t} over {T rSub { size 6{2} } } } } } } {}

Click on the video below to see the mechanism of T 2 relaxation

T 2 relaxation mechanism.

Cpmg sequence

The de-phasing caused by T 1 relaxation can be reversed by applying a 180 o pulse after a time τ has passed after application of the initial 90 o pulse. Thus the phase of the transverse magnetization vector is now reversed by 180 o so that “slower” vectors are now ahead of the “faster” vectors. These faster vectors eventually over-take the slower vectors and cause rephasing which is detected by a receiver coil as a s pin echo . Thus time τ also passes between the application of the 180 o pulse and the maximum peak in the spin echo. The entire sequence is illustrated in [link] . A single echo decays very quickly and hence a series of 180 0 pulses are applied repeatedly in a sequence called the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence .

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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advantages of NAA
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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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