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Introduction

Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is a physical method of compositional analysis that builds upon traditional transmission FTIR spectroscopy to minimize sample preparation and optimize reproducibility. Condensed phase samples of relatively low refractive index are placed in close contact with a crystal of high refractive index and the infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of the sample can be collected. Based on total internal reflection, the absorption spectra of ATR resemble those of transmission FTIR. To learn more about transmission IR spectroscopy (FTIR) please refer to the module Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Metal Ligand Complexes .

First publicly proposed in 1959 by Jacques Fahrenfort from the Royal Dutch Shell laboratories in Amsterdam, ATR IR spectroscopy was described as a technique to effectively measure weakly absorbing condensed phase materials. In Fahrenfort's first article describing the technique, published in 1961, he used a hemicylindrical ATR crystal (see Experimental Conditions) to produce single-reflection ATR ( [link] ). ATR IR spectroscopy was slow to become accepted as a method of characterization due to concerns about its quantitative effectiveness and reproducibility. The main concern being the sample and ATR crystal contact necessary to achieve decent spectral contrast. In the late 1980’s FTIR spectrometers began improving due to an increased dynamic range, signal to noise ratio, and faster computers. As a result ATR-FTIR also started gaining traction as an efficient spectroscopic technique. These days ATR accessories are often manufactured to work in conjunction with most FTIR spectrometers, as can be seen in [link] .

The first ATR Infrared Spectrometer designed by Jacques Fahrenfort featuring a hemicylindrical ATR crystal. Reproduced from J. Fahrenfort, Spectrochim. Acta , 1961, 17 , 698. Copyright: Elsevier (1961).
An ATR attachment on an FTIR spectrometer.

Total internal reflection

For additional information on light waves and their properties please refer to the module on Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) .

When considering light propagating across an interface between two materials with different indices of refraction, the angle of refraction can be given by Snell’s law, [link] , where n 1 and n 2 refer to the refractive indices of the two materials.

When the incident medium has a higher refractive index than that of the transmitted medium, there will be a critical angle of incidence, [link] , where none of the incident light will be transmitted.

The reflectance of the interface is total and whenever light is incident from a higher refractive index medium onto a lower refractive index medium, the reflection is deemed internal (as opposed to external in the opposite scenario). Total internal reflectance experiences no losses, or no transmitted light ( [link] ).

At the interface between two materials with different indices of refraction, (a) when the angle of incident light, θ 1 , is below the critical angle, θ c , both reflection and transmission occur, and (b) when the angle of incident light exceeds the critical angle, total internal reflection (TIR) occurs, spawning an evanescent wave at the interface. Adapted from M. Schnippering, S. R. T. Neil, S. R. Mackenzie, and P. R. Unwin, Chem. Soc. Rev. , 2011, 40 , 207. Copyright: Royal Society of Chemistry (2011).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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