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Introduction

Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is a physical method of compositional analysis that builds upon traditional transmission FTIR spectroscopy to minimize sample preparation and optimize reproducibility. Condensed phase samples of relatively low refractive index are placed in close contact with a crystal of high refractive index and the infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of the sample can be collected. Based on total internal reflection, the absorption spectra of ATR resemble those of transmission FTIR. To learn more about transmission IR spectroscopy (FTIR) please refer to the module Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Metal Ligand Complexes .

First publicly proposed in 1959 by Jacques Fahrenfort from the Royal Dutch Shell laboratories in Amsterdam, ATR IR spectroscopy was described as a technique to effectively measure weakly absorbing condensed phase materials. In Fahrenfort's first article describing the technique, published in 1961, he used a hemicylindrical ATR crystal (see Experimental Conditions) to produce single-reflection ATR ( [link] ). ATR IR spectroscopy was slow to become accepted as a method of characterization due to concerns about its quantitative effectiveness and reproducibility. The main concern being the sample and ATR crystal contact necessary to achieve decent spectral contrast. In the late 1980’s FTIR spectrometers began improving due to an increased dynamic range, signal to noise ratio, and faster computers. As a result ATR-FTIR also started gaining traction as an efficient spectroscopic technique. These days ATR accessories are often manufactured to work in conjunction with most FTIR spectrometers, as can be seen in [link] .

The first ATR Infrared Spectrometer designed by Jacques Fahrenfort featuring a hemicylindrical ATR crystal. Reproduced from J. Fahrenfort, Spectrochim. Acta , 1961, 17 , 698. Copyright: Elsevier (1961).
An ATR attachment on an FTIR spectrometer.

Total internal reflection

For additional information on light waves and their properties please refer to the module on Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) .

When considering light propagating across an interface between two materials with different indices of refraction, the angle of refraction can be given by Snell’s law, [link] , where n 1 and n 2 refer to the refractive indices of the two materials.

When the incident medium has a higher refractive index than that of the transmitted medium, there will be a critical angle of incidence, [link] , where none of the incident light will be transmitted.

The reflectance of the interface is total and whenever light is incident from a higher refractive index medium onto a lower refractive index medium, the reflection is deemed internal (as opposed to external in the opposite scenario). Total internal reflectance experiences no losses, or no transmitted light ( [link] ).

At the interface between two materials with different indices of refraction, (a) when the angle of incident light, θ 1 , is below the critical angle, θ c , both reflection and transmission occur, and (b) when the angle of incident light exceeds the critical angle, total internal reflection (TIR) occurs, spawning an evanescent wave at the interface. Adapted from M. Schnippering, S. R. T. Neil, S. R. Mackenzie, and P. R. Unwin, Chem. Soc. Rev. , 2011, 40 , 207. Copyright: Royal Society of Chemistry (2011).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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