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Introduction

Both iron oxide nanocrystals: Fe 3 O 4 (magnetite) and Fe 2 O 3 (maghemite, as it is a cross between MAGnetite and HEMatite) are ferrimagnetic materials which means they can behave as permanent magnets. Additionally, those oxides below 10 nanometers in diameter, exhibit superparamagnetic properties and are used as MRI contrast agents.

Remember that last semester, you prepared a solution of magnetite ferrofluid by mixing iron(II) chloride and iron(III) chloride in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide.

Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals on Earth and has shown a lot of promise in environmental remediation as it efficiently removes As(III) and As(V) from water, this efficiency of the removal increases ~200 times when the magnetite particle size decreases from 300 to 12 nm. Since arsenic contaminated drinking water is a major problem around the world, using magnetite as a sorbent shows a great deal of promise.

Additionally, Fe(II) compounds have been used to oxidize organic contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE), while inorganic contaminants such as arsenic, lead and uranium are separated out of solution. Between 10 and 20 nanometers, the contaminants can be removed from water via handheld magnets, which is an important consideration in purifying water in the Third World, where power is not a standard commodity.

We will produce nanocrystalline and functional iron oxides following a green approach by using everyday items and equipment found in kitchens worldwide. The nanocrystalline and functional oxides are produced by thermal decomposition of the iron-precursors in order to form highly uniform, isolatable nanocrystals of tunable size. The iron precursors will decompose into iron oxides in organic solvents (thermally stable non-polar solvents, aka fatty acids such as oleic acid) at temperatures in excess of 200ºC; the presence of amphiphilic stabilizers, in this case fatty acids derived from soap, limits the growth of crystalline products which are either magnetite, maghemite, or mixtures of both phases.

The beauty of this method lies in the ability to use inexpensive iron sources, such as rust, to form iron carboxylate intermediates, that when scaled to the gram level effectively produces a relatively low cost method for removal of arsenic from contaminated water (see Table 1).

Rust is a mixture of iron hydroxides, oxides, and in some cases even zero-valent iron, but is as effective as FeOOH used in any laboratory method. The fatty acid used in conventional methods is oleic acid, an unsaturated 18 carbon fatty acid. It can be replaced by many cooking oils that can be processed to create a homemade soap through saponification, by the addition of a base such as lye. The soap is allowed to cure for a few days and then dissolved in a weak acid, such as vinegar. The organic layer of the liquid can be collected and used without further processing. The “fatty acid mixture” or FAM is an impure fatty acid whose exact composition depends on the starting edible oil. Olive oil contains the most oleic acid; coconut oils contain more lineolic acid. For this lab, the FAM is derived from vegetable oil, a standard starting reactant.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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