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Introduction

Both iron oxide nanocrystals: Fe 3 O 4 (magnetite) and Fe 2 O 3 (maghemite, as it is a cross between MAGnetite and HEMatite) are ferrimagnetic materials which means they can behave as permanent magnets. Additionally, those oxides below 10 nanometers in diameter, exhibit superparamagnetic properties and are used as MRI contrast agents.

Remember that last semester, you prepared a solution of magnetite ferrofluid by mixing iron(II) chloride and iron(III) chloride in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide.

Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals on Earth and has shown a lot of promise in environmental remediation as it efficiently removes As(III) and As(V) from water, this efficiency of the removal increases ~200 times when the magnetite particle size decreases from 300 to 12 nm. Since arsenic contaminated drinking water is a major problem around the world, using magnetite as a sorbent shows a great deal of promise.

Additionally, Fe(II) compounds have been used to oxidize organic contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE), while inorganic contaminants such as arsenic, lead and uranium are separated out of solution. Between 10 and 20 nanometers, the contaminants can be removed from water via handheld magnets, which is an important consideration in purifying water in the Third World, where power is not a standard commodity.

We will produce nanocrystalline and functional iron oxides following a green approach by using everyday items and equipment found in kitchens worldwide. The nanocrystalline and functional oxides are produced by thermal decomposition of the iron-precursors in order to form highly uniform, isolatable nanocrystals of tunable size. The iron precursors will decompose into iron oxides in organic solvents (thermally stable non-polar solvents, aka fatty acids such as oleic acid) at temperatures in excess of 200ºC; the presence of amphiphilic stabilizers, in this case fatty acids derived from soap, limits the growth of crystalline products which are either magnetite, maghemite, or mixtures of both phases.

The beauty of this method lies in the ability to use inexpensive iron sources, such as rust, to form iron carboxylate intermediates, that when scaled to the gram level effectively produces a relatively low cost method for removal of arsenic from contaminated water (see Table 1).

Rust is a mixture of iron hydroxides, oxides, and in some cases even zero-valent iron, but is as effective as FeOOH used in any laboratory method. The fatty acid used in conventional methods is oleic acid, an unsaturated 18 carbon fatty acid. It can be replaced by many cooking oils that can be processed to create a homemade soap through saponification, by the addition of a base such as lye. The soap is allowed to cure for a few days and then dissolved in a weak acid, such as vinegar. The organic layer of the liquid can be collected and used without further processing. The “fatty acid mixture” or FAM is an impure fatty acid whose exact composition depends on the starting edible oil. Olive oil contains the most oleic acid; coconut oils contain more lineolic acid. For this lab, the FAM is derived from vegetable oil, a standard starting reactant.

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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