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A summary of common methods used to characterize chemically functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs).


Characterization of nanoparticles in general, and carbon nanotubes in particular, remains a technical challenge even though the chemistry of covalent functionalization has been studied for more than a decade. It has been noted by several researchers that the characterization of products represents a constant problem in nanotube chemistry. A systematic tool or suites of tools are needed for adequate characterization of chemically functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), and is necessary for declaration of success or failure in functionalization trials.

So far, a wide range of techniques have been applied to characterize functionalized SWNTs: infra red (IR), Raman, and UV/visible spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), etc. A summary of the attribute of each of the characterization method is given in [link] .

Common characterization methodology for functionalized SWNTs.
Method Sample Information Limitations
TGA solid functionalization ratio no evidence for covalent functionalization, not specific
XPS solid elements, functionalization ratio no evidence of covalent functionalization, not specific, quantification complicated
Raman solid sp 3 indicated by D mode not specific, quantification not reliable
Infra red (IR) solid for (ATR-IR) or solution substituent groups no direct evidence for covalent functionalization, quantification not possible
UV/visible solution sidewall functionalization not specific or quantitative, need highly dispersed sample
Solution NMR solution substituents no evidence of covalent functionalization, high solubility of sample
Solid state NMR solid substituents, sp 3 molecular motions, quantification at high level of funcitionalization high functionalization needed, long time for signal acquisition, quantification not available for samples with protons on side chains
AFM solid on substrate topography only a small portion of sample characterized, no evidence of covalent functionalization, no chemical identity
TEM solid on substrate image of sample distribution dispersion only a small portion of sample characterized, no evidence of covalent functionalization, no chemical identity dispersion information complicated
STM solid on substrate distribution no chemical identity of functional groups small portion of sample conductive sample only

Elemental and physical analysis

Thermogravimetric analysis (tga)

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is the mostly widely used method to determine the level of sidewall functionalization. Since most functional groups are labile or decompose upon heating, while the SWNTs are stable up to 1200 °C under Ar atmosphere. The weight loss at 800 °C under Ar is often used to determine functionalization ratio using this indirect method. Unfortunately, quantification can be complicated with presence of multiple functional groups. Also, TGA does not provide direct evidence for covalent functionalization since it cannot differentiate between covalent attachment and physical adsorption.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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