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Samples are placed in glass cells to be degassed and analyzed by the BET machine. Glass rods are placed within the cell to minimize the dead space in the cell. Sample cells typically come in sizes of 6, 9 and 12 mm and come in different shapes. 6 mm cells are usually used for fine powders, 9 mm cells for larger particles and small pellets and 12 mm are used for large pieces that cannot be further reduced. The cells are placed into heating mantles and connected to the outgas port of the machine.

After the sample is degassed, the cell is moved to the analysis port ( [link] ). Dewars of liquid nitrogen are used to cool the sample and maintain it at a constant temperature. A low temperature must be maintained so that the interaction between the gas molecules and the surface of the sample will be strong enough for measurable amounts of adsorption to occur. The adsorbate, nitrogen gas in this case, is injected into the sample cell with a calibrated piston. The dead volume in the sample cell must be calibrated before and after each measurement. To do that, helium gas is used for a blank run, because helium does not adsorb onto the sample.

Schematic representation of the BET instrument. The degasser is not shown.

Shortcomings of bet

The BET technique has some disadvantages when compared to NMR, which can also be used to measure the surface area of nanoparticles. BET measurements can only be used to determine the surface area of dry powders. This technique requires a lot of time for the adsorption of gas molecules to occur. A lot of manual preparation is required.

The surface area determination of metal-organic frameworks

The BET technique was used to determine the surface areas of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are crystalline compounds of metal ions coordinated to organic molecules. Possible applications of MOFs, which are porous, include gas purification and catalysis. An isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) with the chemical formula Zn 4 O(pyrene-1,2-dicarboxylate) 3 ( [link] ) was used as an example to see if BET could accurately determine the surface area of microporous materials. The predicted surface area was calculated directly from the geometry of the crystals and agreed with the data obtained from the BET isotherms. Data was collected at a constant temperature of 77 K and a type II isotherm ( [link] ) was obtained.

The structure of catenated IRMOF-13. Orange and yellow represent non-catenated pore volumes. Green represents catenated pore volume.
The BET isotherms of the zeolites and metal-organic frameworks. IRMOF-13 is symbolized by the black triangle and red line. Adapted from Y.S. Bae, R.Q. Snurr, and O. Yazaydin, Langmuir , 2010, 26 , 5478.

The isotherm data obtained from partial pressure range of 0.05 to 0.3 is plugged into the BET equation, [link] , to obtain the BET plot ( [link] ).

BET plot of IRMOF-13 using points collected at the pressure range 0.05 to 0.3. The equation of the best-fit line and R 2 value are shown. Adapted from Y.S. Bae, R.Q. Snurr, and O. Yazaydin, Langmuir , 2010, 26 , 5479.

Using [link] , the monolayer capacity is determined to be 391.2 cm 3 /g.

Now that X m is known, then [link] can be used to determine that the surface area is 1702.3 m 2 /g.

Bibliography

  • B. H. Davis, J. Phys. Chem. , 1986, 90 , 4702.
  • K. S. Sing, Langmuir , 1987, 3 , 2.
  • Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Surface Area Analysis and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) Pore Size and Volume Analysis , Testing and Analysis Techniques. CERAM.
  • S. Brunauer, L. S. Deming, W. E. Deming, and E. Teller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 1940, 62 , 1723.
  • S. Brunauer, P. H. Emmett, and E. Teller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 1938, 60 , 309.
  • Y. S. Bae, R. Q. Snurr, and O. Yazaydin, Langmuir , 2010, 26 , 5475.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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