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On the buyer’s side of the labor market, a standard precaution against hiring a “lemon” of an employee is to specify that the first few months of employment are officially a trial or probationary period, and that the worker can be let go for any reason or no reason after that time. Sometimes workers also receive lower pay during this trial period.

In the financial capital market , before a bank makes a loan, it requires a prospective borrower fill out forms regarding the sources of income; in addition, the bank conducts a credit check on the individual’s past borrowing. Another approach is to require a cosigner    on a loan; that is, another person or firm who legally pledges to repay some or all of the money if the original borrower does not do so. Yet another approach is to require collateral    , often property or equipment that the bank would have a right to seize and sell if the loan is not repaid.

Buyers of goods and services cannot possibly become experts in evaluating the quality of gemstones, used cars, lawyers, and everything else they buy. Employers and lenders cannot be perfectly omniscient about whether possible workers will turn out well or potential borrowers will repay loans on time. But the mechanisms mentioned above can reduce the risks associated with imperfect information so that the buyer and seller are willing to proceed.

Key concepts and summary

Many economic transactions are made in a situation of imperfect information, where either the buyer, the seller, or both are less than 100% certain about the qualities of what is being bought and sold. When information about the quality of products is highly imperfect, it may be difficult for a market to exist.

A “lemon” is the name given to a product that turns out, after the purchase, to have low quality. When the seller has more accurate information about the quality of the product than the buyer, the buyer will be hesitant to buy, out of fear of purchasing a “lemon.”

Markets have many ways to deal with imperfect information. In goods markets, buyers facing imperfect information about products may depend upon money-back guarantees, warranties, service contracts, and reputation. In labor markets, employers facing imperfect information about potential employees may turn to resumes, recommendations, occupational licenses for certain jobs, and employment for trial periods. In capital markets, lenders facing imperfect information about borrowers may require detailed loan applications and credit checks, cosigners, and collateral.

Problem

Using [link] , sketch the effects in parts (a) and (b) on a single supply and demand diagram. What prediction would you make about how the improved information alters the equilibrium quantity and price?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

References

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. 2015. “Policy Basics: Where Do Our Federal Tax Dollars Go?” Accessed April 1, 2015. http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=1258.

Consumer Reports. “Consumer Reports.org.” http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/index.htm.

Federal Trade Commission. “About the Federal Trade Commission.” Last modified October 17, 2013. http://www.ftc.gov/ftc/about.shtm.

Huffington Post. 2015. “HUFFPOLLSTER: Poll Shows Uptick In Obamacare Favorable Rating.” Accessed April 1, 2015. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/19/affordable-care-act-fav_n_6900938.html.

Kahneman, Daniel, and Amos Tversky. “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk.” Econometrica . 47, no. 2 (1979): 263-291. http://www.princeton.edu/~kahneman/docs/Publications/prospect_theory.pdf.

Rasmussen Reports, LLC. “Rasmussen Reports.” http://www.rasmussenreports.com/.

Questions & Answers

how do I view the graphs
Patricia Reply
how do I open the links
Patricia
what is the markert
Ester Reply
A market is any place where buying and selling can take place.
Landing
20. Why is a football game on ESPN a quasi-public good but a game on the NBC, CBS, or ABC is a public good?
Brigam Reply
how people make decision?
Xafsa Reply
what is supply and demand
Xafsa Reply
Demand refers to how much (quantity) of a product or service is desired by buyers. The quantity demanded is the amount of a product people are willing to buy at a certain price.
Landing
thank you very much
Xafsa
list and briefly explain the three principles that describe how the economy as whole works?
Xafsa
what is algebra?
ibiflower Reply
what is the relationship between price and demand
Evans Reply
the relation ship between price and demand is the income and Utility means when you are satisfied and you can buy it then you have to demand it.Thanks
Abdulkadir
who thought u that? you are not answering this as an economist
Evans
alright, but can you tell how the economist will be answered
Abdulkadir
alright, but can you tell me how the economist will be answered
Abdulkadir
Law of demanded  states: As price  of a good increases, the quantity demanded  of the good falls, and as the price  of a good decreases, the quantity demanded of the good rises.
Lewis
So, there is an inverse relationship between price and demand.
Lewis
lewis answered it perfectly
Evans
I want for market value for price. or cleance
Samantha
time ticket of value market down so double be self 1.09 but I 10 chesse for 1.09 bugger
Samantha
hi
Langanani
Without scarcity there would be no subject call Economics. Explain why?
Landing
because economics is the study of scarcity of resources and the satisfaction of basic human need
Pele
give an example of some action that has both amonetary and nonmonetary apportunity cost?
Aisha Reply
any action can be argued to have both. For instance, being in class has the opportunity cost of time you could be spent earning wages, or time that could've been spent leisurely.
DASRAT
absolutely
Abdulkadir
Really
DASRAT
there is no any action that hasn't both a monetary and non-monetary as said Mr Dasrat
Abdulkadir
thanks
Aisha
u Welcome
Abdulkadir
describe an important trade-off you recently faced?
Aisha Reply
Financial issues and careerPersonal life and work lifeMost people don't like the work they do. The interest they have is something different from the work they do and eventually forgo their interest. These are the three most important tradeoffs I have come across, yet there may be many in number.
DASRAT
still
Abdulkadir
Yah still
DASRAT
yes
Abdulkadir
why people make the choices they make and how economist go about explaining those choices
Asim Reply
what is tradeoffs
Asim
giving up one thing to have another
Shriyash
what is demand
Asim Reply
why demand and supply interact in a market
Asim
In the supply and demand model of price determination, there is never a surplus or shortage of goods at the equilibrium level. The market always settles at the point where supply equalsdemand. If demand increases (decreases) and supply is unchanged, then it leads to a higher (lower) equilibrium pric
DASRAT
why demand is based on need and wants ?
Asim
because there is scarcity of resources,whether you can not get whatever you want one time so you have to chooseen which you will choose that is your needs(basic) after that you can demand it on the other hand,every society would demand their basic needs when they recognized it. so ther is no demand
Abdulkadir
there is no demand if there is no needs and wants
Abdulkadir
Because when you have need and your wants is depends upon demand
DASRAT
what is other causes
Asim
overall demand is coused by an income and price,if the price satisfies to you and your income is enough to you the you will demand whatever you want
Abdulkadir
what is satiety ?
Asim
what is a different between marginal cost and marginal benefit
Ndumiso Reply
What is Tradeoff
Oumie Reply
What is traoff
Oumie Reply
It's tariff not traoff
DASRAT
I mean Tradeoff
Oumie
a balance achieved between two desirable but incompatible features; a compromise.
SHARMAKE
Thanks
Oumie
these problems of scarcity are been face by household companies and nation at large
Muafue Reply
will you please explain it more😭
kainat
i am economist and i need helping to be perfect person in that field
Dr
okay
kainat
Hey
DASRAT
yup
kainat
hi
louh
scarcity is inevitable as it ensures sanity and sanctity among men. it's alled 'the Lord's act'. The issue of the victims is just a simple one of Cause and Effect. Somebody or entity must be a recipient of whatever.
tolu

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Source:  OpenStax, Microeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11627/1.10
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