# 8.2 How perfectly competitive firms make output decisions  (Page 10/28)

 Page 10 / 28
Q P TFC TVC TC AVC ATC MC TR Profits
0 \$28 \$20 \$0 \$20 - - - \$0 −\$20
1 \$28 \$20 \$20 \$40 \$20.00 \$40.00 \$20 \$28 −\$12
2 \$28 \$20 \$25 \$45 \$12.50 \$22.50 \$5 \$56 \$11
3 \$28 \$20 \$35 \$55 \$11.67 \$18.33 \$10 \$84 \$29
4 \$28 \$20 \$52 \$72 \$13.00 \$18.00 \$17 \$112 \$40
5 \$28 \$20 \$80 \$100 \$16.40 \$20.40 \$30 \$140 \$40

Step 5. Once you have determined the profit-maximizing output level (in this case, output quantity 5), you can look at the amount of profits made (in this case, \$40).

Step 6. If the firm is making economic losses, the firm needs to determine whether it produces the output level where price equals marginal revenue and equals marginal cost or it shuts down and only incurs its fixed costs.

Step 7. For the output level where marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost, check if the market price is greater than the average variable cost of producing that output level.

• If P>AVC but P<ATC, then the firm continues to produce in the short-run, making economic losses.
• If P<AVC, then the firm stops producing and only incurs its fixed costs.

In this example, the price of \$28 is greater than the AVC (\$16.40) of producing 5 units of output, so the firm continues producing.

## Key concepts and summary

As a perfectly competitive firm produces a greater quantity of output, its total revenue steadily increases at a constant rate determined by the given market price. Profits will be highest (or losses will be smallest) at the quantity of output where total revenues exceed total costs by the greatest amount (or where total revenues fall short of total costs by the smallest amount). Alternatively, profits will be highest where marginal revenue, which is price for a perfectly competitive firm, is equal to marginal cost. If the market price faced by a perfectly competitive firm is above average cost at the profit-maximizing quantity of output, then the firm is making profits. If the market price is below average cost at the profit-maximizing quantity of output, then the firm is making losses.

If the market price is equal to average cost at the profit-maximizing level of output, then the firm is making zero profits. The point where the marginal cost curve crosses the average cost curve, at the minimum of the average cost curve, is called the “zero profit point.” If the market price faced by a perfectly competitive firm is below average variable cost at the profit-maximizing quantity of output, then the firm should shut down operations immediately. If the market price faced by a perfectly competitive firm is above average variable cost, but below average cost, then the firm should continue producing in the short run, but exit in the long run. The point where the marginal cost curve crosses the average variable cost curve is called the shutdown point.

## Problems

The AAA Aquarium Co. sells aquariums for \$20 each. Fixed costs of production are \$20. The total variable costs are \$20 for one aquarium, \$25 for two units, \$35 for the three units, \$50 for four units, and \$80 for five units. In the form of a table, calculate total revenue, marginal revenue, total cost, and marginal cost for each output level (one to five units). What is the profit-maximizing quantity of output? On one diagram, sketch the total revenue and total cost curves. On another diagram, sketch the marginal revenue and marginal cost curves.

Perfectly competitive firm Doggies Paradise Inc. sells winter coats for dogs. Dog coats sell for \$72 each. The fixed costs of production are \$100. The total variable costs are \$64 for one unit, \$84 for two units, \$114 for three units, \$184 for four units, and \$270 for five units. In the form of a table, calculate total revenue, marginal revenue, total cost and marginal cost for each output level (one to five units). On one diagram, sketch the total revenue and total cost curves. On another diagram, sketch the marginal revenue and marginal cost curves. What is the profit maximizing quantity?

A computer company produces affordable, easy-to-use home computer systems and has fixed costs of \$250. The marginal cost of producing computers is \$700 for the first computer, \$250 for the second, \$300 for the third, \$350 for the fourth, \$400 for the fifth, \$450 for the sixth, and \$500 for the seventh.

1. Create a table that shows the company’s output, total cost, marginal cost, average cost, variable cost, and average variable cost.
2. At what price is the zero-profit point? At what price is the shutdown point?
3. If the company sells the computers for \$500, is it making a profit or a loss? How big is the profit or loss? Sketch a graph with AC, MC, and AVC curves to illustrate your answer and show the profit or loss.
4. If the firm sells the computers for \$300, is it making a profit or a loss? How big is the profit or loss? Sketch a graph with AC, MC, and AVC curves to illustrate your answer and show the profit or loss.

what is economic
Economics is the study of how Individual consumer, institution and society as a whole uses its available finite resources to satisfy infinite needs and wants
Richard
other things remain constant.
explain scarcity
scarcity occurs when there are not enough resources to satisfy human's needs and wants therefore we need to allocate our resources using the price mechanism.
Isha
scarcity is when there is inadequate resources to catch the unlimited wants which would compel individual to make choice.
Prince
scarcity simply means when there's a shortages of resources to satisfy Hunan's need and wants in a particular time, which means the demand for it at the moment is higher than the supply
Abu
scarcity simply means when there's a shortages of resources to satisfy humans need and wants in a particular time, which means the demand for it at the moment is higher than it supply.
Abu
😂😂😂
Isha
That escalated real quick😂
Isha
scarcity is sometimes considered as the basic problems of economics resources r scarce because we live in a world of humans in which wants are infinite but the land labor and capital r required to satisfy those wants are limited
Nkwenti
scarcity means unlimited resources
Rena
joint or complementary demand
what is demand
it maybe define as the amount or quantity of goods and services which a consumer is willing to buy with the ability to pay at a given price at a particular time
Habib
yesoo thanks dear
Gyamfua
why is economics a science
Because science is all about thinking by making models whether a computational or Mathematical. Economics is a social sciences because it effects society but to understand Economics we use maths so it is a Science
Amit
hi
Mony
hello
Amit
I hope.......Economic is social science because it makes new new currency of money,it is decided the country’s depend system and the system be repeated others benefits in our ...
Anik
yeah
Habib
so what is the disadvantages of mix economic system
Habib
Economics is regarded as a social science because it uses scientific methods to build theories that can help explain the behaviour of individuals, groups and organisations.
Ali
The question is: why is Economic a "science" and not why is economics a "social science?" Alright folks?
Xavier
In my own understanding of why economics is a science it bcz it deals mainly on human resources just like biology that deals in the human body why economics is science it also deals on the management of human resources all over the world bcz without economics there will be no human resources
Ogbonnaya
what is technology
Nkwenti
my response to the earlier question is, economics is a science but not a pure science like biology, chemistry and physics. The reason is that those pure science study inanimate object while economics study human being, their experiment are predictable.
raimi
Economics is a social science subject that shows the relationship between ends and scarce means with their alternative uses
Ajenifuja
what is Equilibrium?
it means equal price and equal quality
Arthur
thank u Arthur!
Fatima
😇🙏
Fatima
Thanks
Moses
Equilibrium is a state of balance in an economy. In as far as market forces are reasonably concerned, equilibrium means the state at which the quantity of goods supplied is equal to the quantity of goods demanded.
Xavier
what is labour
Ayham
labor can be define as a both physical and mental effort of man put forward towards production
Habib
name the types of demand and explain any two
ALIMAMYISLA
Joint demand Composite demand Competitive demand
Ajenifuja
Labourcan be defined as man mental and physical exertion
Ajenifuja
equilibrium is a state of balance especially between opposing forces or influences
Nkwenti
what is elasticity
difference between demand and supply
Demand- It is the desire of a buyer and his ability to pay for a particular commodity at a specific price. Supply- It is quantity of a commodity which is made available by the producers to its consumers at certain price.
Ali
yes OK thank you dear
Gyamfua
Demand can be defined as the ability a buyer is willing and able to pay at a specific price and in agiven period of time Supply can be defined as the ability the producer is willing to supply with a specific price
Ajenifuja
thanks
antony
what is labor force
Habib
demand represents the consumer while supply represents the firm
Nkwenti
formula for price elasticity of demand
cost advantage is an advantage that the firm has over competitors in terms of costs absolute advantage is d ability of an individual company, region,or country to produce a greater quantity of a good of service with the same quantity of inputs per unit per time
Nkwenti
what is ceteris paribus
Uchaash
other things remain constant.
Esale
can you explain in more details about ceteris paribus?
Uchaash
what is demand
demand can be defined as the quantity of a commodity which people are willing to buy at particular times and at a given price .
YAHA
you are talking about campaney in my self ihave campaney why don't you calculated my business By By OpenStax By Brooke Delaney By OpenStax By OpenStax By Anonymous User By OpenStax By OpenStax By OpenStax By OpenStax By Jonathan Long