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Q P TFC TVC TC AVC ATC MC TR Profits
0 $28 $20 $0 $20 - - - $0 −$20
1 $28 $20 $20 $40 $20.00 $40.00 $20 $28 −$12
2 $28 $20 $25 $45 $12.50 $22.50 $5 $56 $11
3 $28 $20 $35 $55 $11.67 $18.33 $10 $84 $29
4 $28 $20 $52 $72 $13.00 $18.00 $17 $112 $40
5 $28 $20 $80 $100 $16.40 $20.40 $30 $140 $40

Step 5. Once you have determined the profit-maximizing output level (in this case, output quantity 5), you can look at the amount of profits made (in this case, $40).

Step 6. If the firm is making economic losses, the firm needs to determine whether it produces the output level where price equals marginal revenue and equals marginal cost or it shuts down and only incurs its fixed costs.

Step 7. For the output level where marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost, check if the market price is greater than the average variable cost of producing that output level.

  • If P>AVC but P<ATC, then the firm continues to produce in the short-run, making economic losses.
  • If P<AVC, then the firm stops producing and only incurs its fixed costs.

In this example, the price of $28 is greater than the AVC ($16.40) of producing 5 units of output, so the firm continues producing.

Key concepts and summary

As a perfectly competitive firm produces a greater quantity of output, its total revenue steadily increases at a constant rate determined by the given market price. Profits will be highest (or losses will be smallest) at the quantity of output where total revenues exceed total costs by the greatest amount (or where total revenues fall short of total costs by the smallest amount). Alternatively, profits will be highest where marginal revenue, which is price for a perfectly competitive firm, is equal to marginal cost. If the market price faced by a perfectly competitive firm is above average cost at the profit-maximizing quantity of output, then the firm is making profits. If the market price is below average cost at the profit-maximizing quantity of output, then the firm is making losses.

If the market price is equal to average cost at the profit-maximizing level of output, then the firm is making zero profits. The point where the marginal cost curve crosses the average cost curve, at the minimum of the average cost curve, is called the “zero profit point.” If the market price faced by a perfectly competitive firm is below average variable cost at the profit-maximizing quantity of output, then the firm should shut down operations immediately. If the market price faced by a perfectly competitive firm is above average variable cost, but below average cost, then the firm should continue producing in the short run, but exit in the long run. The point where the marginal cost curve crosses the average variable cost curve is called the shutdown point.

Problems

The AAA Aquarium Co. sells aquariums for $20 each. Fixed costs of production are $20. The total variable costs are $20 for one aquarium, $25 for two units, $35 for the three units, $50 for four units, and $80 for five units. In the form of a table, calculate total revenue, marginal revenue, total cost, and marginal cost for each output level (one to five units). What is the profit-maximizing quantity of output? On one diagram, sketch the total revenue and total cost curves. On another diagram, sketch the marginal revenue and marginal cost curves.

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Perfectly competitive firm Doggies Paradise Inc. sells winter coats for dogs. Dog coats sell for $72 each. The fixed costs of production are $100. The total variable costs are $64 for one unit, $84 for two units, $114 for three units, $184 for four units, and $270 for five units. In the form of a table, calculate total revenue, marginal revenue, total cost and marginal cost for each output level (one to five units). On one diagram, sketch the total revenue and total cost curves. On another diagram, sketch the marginal revenue and marginal cost curves. What is the profit maximizing quantity?

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A computer company produces affordable, easy-to-use home computer systems and has fixed costs of $250. The marginal cost of producing computers is $700 for the first computer, $250 for the second, $300 for the third, $350 for the fourth, $400 for the fifth, $450 for the sixth, and $500 for the seventh.

  1. Create a table that shows the company’s output, total cost, marginal cost, average cost, variable cost, and average variable cost.
  2. At what price is the zero-profit point? At what price is the shutdown point?
  3. If the company sells the computers for $500, is it making a profit or a loss? How big is the profit or loss? Sketch a graph with AC, MC, and AVC curves to illustrate your answer and show the profit or loss.
  4. If the firm sells the computers for $300, is it making a profit or a loss? How big is the profit or loss? Sketch a graph with AC, MC, and AVC curves to illustrate your answer and show the profit or loss.

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Questions & Answers

What is scarcity.
Npoanlarb Reply
why our wants are limited
Npoanlarb Reply
nooo want is unlimited but resources are limited
Ruchi
and do to that there occurs scarcity and we have to make choice in order to have what we need if need be I will explain more
Madara
our wants are not limited but rather the resources
Moses
as we know that there are two principle of microeconomics scarcity of resources and they have alternative uses...
Ruchi
yes .....
Mathias
what is demand
Thank Reply
demand is something wt we called in economic theory of demand it simply means if price of product is increase then demand of product will decrease
Ruchi
inverse relationship between demand and price
Ruchi
in microeconomic
Ruchi
demand is what and how much you want and what's your need...
Shikhar
how can one be so with economics even while you have less knowledge in mathematics.
OKORO Reply
why is it that some products increases everyday by day
Chiamaka Reply
because demand is increase
Ruchi
because demand is increase
Patience
but how demand increases?
Aziz
Because of the Marketing and purchasing power of people.
AmarbirSingh
but how could we know that people's demands have increased everyday by day and how could we know that this is time to produced the products in the market. Is any connection among them
yaqoob
for normal good people demand remain the same if price of product will increase or not
Ruchi
see that some product which increases day by day is comes under normal good which is used by consumer
Ruchi
Seems hot discussing going here
Shamamet
If there are less products demand starts to increase for those products
Shamamet
Economics is really interesting to learn ....
Shamamet
see there is Inferior goods ands normal goods inferior good demand is rarely increase whereas as we talk about normal good demand will absolutely Increase whether price is increase or not
Ruchi
and demand for normal goods increase cause people's income as a while increases time to time
Abhisek
and it might also be that the cost of raw materials are high.
ATTAH
may be
Ruchi
obviously because demand is increasing.....and price is getting low.....
Shikhar
hmmm there is inverse relationship between demand and price
Ruchi
Importance of economics
Odunayomi Reply
the nature and significance of economics studies
Deborah
What is demand
Shuaib Reply
deman is amount of goods and services a consumer is willing and able to buy or purchase at a given price.
Sainabou
the willingness and ability of a body to purchase goods nd servicesbis called demand ,so if she/has ability but doesn't have willingness it's not a demand same if she or he has willingness but doesn't has ability it's not a demand too
Gul
Demand refers to as quantities of a goods and services in which consumers are willing and able to purchase at a given period of time and demand can also be defined as the desire or willingness and backed by the ability to pay.
Fadiga
Yeah
Mathias
What is Choice
Kofi
Choice refers to the ability of a consumer or producer to decide which good, service or resource to purchase or provide from a range of possible options. Being free to chose is regarded as a fundamental indicator of economic well being and development.
Shonal
choice is a act of selecting or choosing from the numerous or plenty wants.
Fadiga
how does consumer make profit
Clifford Reply
Compare and contract the function of commercial bank and the central bank of Nigeria
Akwi Reply
what do think is the difference between overhead costs and prime cost
Abdoulkarim
what is economics
Mohamed Reply
economics is a social science that study's how resources can be used to produce goods and services for society
Nathan
Economic is a science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scares means which have alternatives uses or purposes.
Fadiga
what is economics
Mohamed Reply
what is the basic economic problem
John Reply
rules
Buayadarat_Gaming
unlimited wants vs limited resources
Nathan
what economics is all about?
Nomuhle Reply
what is a new paradigm shift
Austen Reply
Paradigm shift it is the reconcilliation of fedural goods in production
Shyline
fedural? what is that?
Aziz
factors that affecting economic system
Bemen Reply
crux
Shyline

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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