# 8.2 How perfectly competitive firms make output decisions  (Page 10/28)

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Q P TFC TVC TC AVC ATC MC TR Profits
0 \$28 \$20 \$0 \$20 - - - \$0 −\$20
1 \$28 \$20 \$20 \$40 \$20.00 \$40.00 \$20 \$28 −\$12
2 \$28 \$20 \$25 \$45 \$12.50 \$22.50 \$5 \$56 \$11
3 \$28 \$20 \$35 \$55 \$11.67 \$18.33 \$10 \$84 \$29
4 \$28 \$20 \$52 \$72 \$13.00 \$18.00 \$17 \$112 \$40
5 \$28 \$20 \$80 \$100 \$16.40 \$20.40 \$30 \$140 \$40

Step 5. Once you have determined the profit-maximizing output level (in this case, output quantity 5), you can look at the amount of profits made (in this case, \$40).

Step 6. If the firm is making economic losses, the firm needs to determine whether it produces the output level where price equals marginal revenue and equals marginal cost or it shuts down and only incurs its fixed costs.

Step 7. For the output level where marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost, check if the market price is greater than the average variable cost of producing that output level.

• If P>AVC but P<ATC, then the firm continues to produce in the short-run, making economic losses.
• If P<AVC, then the firm stops producing and only incurs its fixed costs.

In this example, the price of \$28 is greater than the AVC (\$16.40) of producing 5 units of output, so the firm continues producing.

## Key concepts and summary

As a perfectly competitive firm produces a greater quantity of output, its total revenue steadily increases at a constant rate determined by the given market price. Profits will be highest (or losses will be smallest) at the quantity of output where total revenues exceed total costs by the greatest amount (or where total revenues fall short of total costs by the smallest amount). Alternatively, profits will be highest where marginal revenue, which is price for a perfectly competitive firm, is equal to marginal cost. If the market price faced by a perfectly competitive firm is above average cost at the profit-maximizing quantity of output, then the firm is making profits. If the market price is below average cost at the profit-maximizing quantity of output, then the firm is making losses.

If the market price is equal to average cost at the profit-maximizing level of output, then the firm is making zero profits. The point where the marginal cost curve crosses the average cost curve, at the minimum of the average cost curve, is called the “zero profit point.” If the market price faced by a perfectly competitive firm is below average variable cost at the profit-maximizing quantity of output, then the firm should shut down operations immediately. If the market price faced by a perfectly competitive firm is above average variable cost, but below average cost, then the firm should continue producing in the short run, but exit in the long run. The point where the marginal cost curve crosses the average variable cost curve is called the shutdown point.

## Problems

The AAA Aquarium Co. sells aquariums for \$20 each. Fixed costs of production are \$20. The total variable costs are \$20 for one aquarium, \$25 for two units, \$35 for the three units, \$50 for four units, and \$80 for five units. In the form of a table, calculate total revenue, marginal revenue, total cost, and marginal cost for each output level (one to five units). What is the profit-maximizing quantity of output? On one diagram, sketch the total revenue and total cost curves. On another diagram, sketch the marginal revenue and marginal cost curves.

Perfectly competitive firm Doggies Paradise Inc. sells winter coats for dogs. Dog coats sell for \$72 each. The fixed costs of production are \$100. The total variable costs are \$64 for one unit, \$84 for two units, \$114 for three units, \$184 for four units, and \$270 for five units. In the form of a table, calculate total revenue, marginal revenue, total cost and marginal cost for each output level (one to five units). On one diagram, sketch the total revenue and total cost curves. On another diagram, sketch the marginal revenue and marginal cost curves. What is the profit maximizing quantity?

A computer company produces affordable, easy-to-use home computer systems and has fixed costs of \$250. The marginal cost of producing computers is \$700 for the first computer, \$250 for the second, \$300 for the third, \$350 for the fourth, \$400 for the fifth, \$450 for the sixth, and \$500 for the seventh.

1. Create a table that shows the company’s output, total cost, marginal cost, average cost, variable cost, and average variable cost.
2. At what price is the zero-profit point? At what price is the shutdown point?
3. If the company sells the computers for \$500, is it making a profit or a loss? How big is the profit or loss? Sketch a graph with AC, MC, and AVC curves to illustrate your answer and show the profit or loss.
4. If the firm sells the computers for \$300, is it making a profit or a loss? How big is the profit or loss? Sketch a graph with AC, MC, and AVC curves to illustrate your answer and show the profit or loss.

The quantity of a good demanded rises from 1000 to 1500 units when the price fallsfrom\$1. 50 to\$1. 00 per unit. Find the price elasticity of demand?
what is meant by Regional policy
what is demand
nice question..
Suman
what is aggregate demand and the equation for Y(GDP)
what is cost concept
is a type of mechanism which makes consumers and individuals understand the price of goods and services
Davido
who is the father of Economics
i dont know
Suman
deep
hi
Zafraan
Zafraan
smith
Zafraan
Bevingtone
What is opportunity cost
Bevingtone
is the value of the next best thing you give up when making a decision.
Bongiwe
opportunity cost is a made in order to enjoy something else
Laila
what is cost concept
Fatai
Md
Akligo
Samura
What is demand and supply
Ehwehwe
demand refers to goods and services which consumers are willing and able to buy at a particular period of time and supply refers to the goods and services which consumers are willing and able to offer for sale at a particular period of time
Davido
demand is the quantity of goods and services which a particular customer is willing and able to purchase at that point in time.while supply is a quantity of goods and services which the company is willing and able to render to the customer who purchased it at that point
Israel
Israel
cost concept. it is used for analyzing the cost of a project in short and long run
Israel
opportunity cost can be seen as a forgone alternative. it can be seen as the loss of other alternatives when one alternative is chosen
Israel
cost is value of imput and output at particular period of time. but we can classify in short run and long run.
Nago
Cost is the aggregated sum accrue in procuring something worthwhile.
KATUNKUS
Som
Tandan
Hafiz
what is the formula for elasticity
perc of qty chg/perc of price chg
Suman
ok
Umar
I need some help regarding economic numericals.
Hassan
Tandan
utility
Oppong
demand or supply equation dy hn OK iska schedule bnana above equation ko dekhty hue kasy bnaye gy
Saba
what is cobweb?
A spider's web, especially when old and dusty (The wooden carvings were almost obliterated by cobwebs)
huzaif
what is Economic
Economic is a social science that study human behavior in relationship with end and scarce means which have alternative uses
Agyenkwa
Economics is an inquiry into nature that causes wealth of nations.
Eric
what are the importance of economic
Mbarohey
it helps us use our limited resources to satisfy our unlimited wants
Daniel
economic is the science of wealth
Joseph
it's helps us to be current on what's going on in the world
Joseph
economics can be defined as the science of wealth
Joseph
what are the advantages of sole proprietorship
Mbarohey
is the study of mankind in the ordinary business
Awini
Economic is science which study human behavior in relation to relatively scarce resources and how they are managed
Akligo
What is the formula for calculating elasticity?
(%change in quantity) / (%change in price)
Rahul
thx
lil
.
Tandan
.
Tandan
government spending increase will cause economic grew
no
Helicia
no because government expenditure is very high the growth of the economy will decrease
Davido
trade involves the transfer of good or services from one person to another, often in exchange for money.
Now trade by batter :it may define as form of trading in which good are exchange directly for other goods without the use of money as medium of exchange
is it good to trade with something with a value but given something which has no value
sandra
trade in batter means the exchange of goods and services without using money
Maa
It may be defined as an exchange of goods to satisfy the needs of two parties
Haruna
is the exchange of goods and services for the consumption of human wants
Davido
mention six factors that explain efficiency and productivity of labour
mention six factors that explain efficiency and productivity of labour
bohvy
factors that explain efficiency of labor are 1.population, 2.technology, 3.education, 4.working environment, 5.incentives (tax holidays) and 6.religious or cultural beliefs.
Solomon
What is demand
is the abulity and willingness of a consumer to purchase goods and services at a particular peeiod of time in a given price
Is goods or service that a consumer is willing and able to purchase at a particular time over a giving period of time
Konja
is the ability and the willingness to buy a goods at a particular period of time in a given price
Prince
please go ahead it's been long time you all are explaining basic topics so now there are many topics left you have to discuss them .
Zahid
what is a central bank
transactionsss with all banks of any country
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