# 7.2 The structure of costs in the short run  (Page 3/23)

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## Average total cost, average variable cost, marginal cost

The breakdown of total costs into fixed and variable costs can provide a basis for other insights as well. The first five columns of [link] duplicate the previous table, but the last three columns show average total costs, average variable costs, and marginal costs. These new measures analyze costs on a per-unit (rather than a total) basis and are reflected in the curves shown in [link] . The information on total costs, fixed cost, and variable cost can also be presented on a per-unit basis. Average total cost (ATC) is calculated by dividing total cost by the total quantity produced. The average total cost curve is typically U-shaped. Average variable cost (AVC) is calculated by dividing variable cost by the quantity produced. The average variable cost curve lies below the average total cost curve and is typically U-shaped or upward-sloping. Marginal cost (MC) is calculated by taking the change in total cost between two levels of output and dividing by the change in output. The marginal cost curve is upward-sloping.
Different types of costs
Labor Quantity Fixed Cost Variable Cost Total Cost Marginal Cost Average Total Cost Average Variable Cost
1 16 \$160 \$80 \$240 \$5.00 \$15.00 \$5.00
2 40 \$160 \$160 \$320 \$3.30 \$8.00 \$4.00
3 60 \$160 \$240 \$400 \$4.00 \$6.60 \$4.00
4 72 \$160 \$320 \$480 \$6.60 \$6.60 \$4.40
5 80 \$160 \$400 \$560 \$10.00 \$7.00 \$5.00
6 84 \$160 \$480 \$640 \$20.00 \$7.60 \$5.70

Average total cost (sometimes referred to simply as average cost) is total cost divided by the quantity of output. Since the total cost of producing 40 haircuts is \$320, the average total cost for producing each of 40 haircuts is \$320/40, or \$8 per haircut. Average cost curves are typically U-shaped, as [link] shows. Average total cost starts off relatively high, because at low levels of output total costs are dominated by the fixed cost; mathematically, the denominator is so small that average total cost is large. Average total cost then declines, as the fixed costs are spread over an increasing quantity of output. In the average cost calculation, the rise in the numerator of total costs is relatively small compared to the rise in the denominator of quantity produced. But as output expands still further, the average cost begins to rise. At the right side of the average cost curve, total costs begin rising more rapidly as diminishing returns kick in.

Average variable cost obtained when variable cost is divided by quantity of output. For example, the variable cost of producing 80 haircuts is \$400, so the average variable cost is \$400/80, or \$5 per haircut. Note that at any level of output, the average variable cost curve will always lie below the curve for average total cost, as shown in [link] . The reason is that average total cost includes average variable cost and average fixed cost. Thus, for Q = 80 haircuts, the average total cost is \$8 per haircut, while the average variable cost is \$5 per haircut. However, as output grows, fixed costs become relatively less important (since they do not rise with output), so average variable cost sneaks closer to average cost.

what the word federal mean
Meaning of "movement along curve?
There is movement along curve whenever the 'price' is affected
Isha
its mean price is positively response as demand change and price is negatively reaponse as supply changes
Mudasir
its mean when quantity demanded of commodity changes due to a change in its price ,keeping other factors constant, it is know as change in quantity demanded.
Gyamfua
pleas wat the formula when calculating for equilibrium point
Irene
when there is increase in the price
sautil
when there is increase in demand, demand will decrease.
A movement along curve is a movement on the curve mainly caused by a change occured in both quantity demand and quantity supplied.
Aarohi
what is demand
unwilling to buy good quality at a particular price and a particular time
Musa
Demand is the willingness and ability to buy goods and services at different prices at a given time.
Aarohi
is production function different from psychological law of consumption?
why supply is not the same quantity supplied
What is Elasticity?
Kamara
I don't even understand
Awuah
what is damand
Cletus
Elasticity is an economic concept used to measure the change in the aggregate quantity demand for a goods or service in relation to price movements of that goods and service.
Gyamfua
Demand is an economic principal referring of a consumers desire to purchase goods and service and willingness to pay a price for a specific goods or service.
Gyamfua
supply is not the same as quantity supplied, because when economic refer to supply, they mean the relationship between a range of price an the quantity supplied those price -are relationship that can be illustrated with a supply curve or supply schedule
Gyamfua
Is a science which study human behavior as a relationship between ends and scares means which have alternative uses
I dont think so
Mahmood
It is Economic growth and stability
Mahmood
How Economic recovery growth Planning
Awuah
Yh
Berry
Are bonds the same as liabilities?
Demend create it own supply how?
Mahmood
what is way ofrece thinking
Mahmood
what is the Economic way thinkig?
Mahmood
what is gasoline
how to know which products demand
Deepak
in other words economic can be define as what?
what is the difference between economics activities and economics system
what is the difference between price elasticity of demand and income elasticity of demand
what is demand
What is demand
Musa
is a measure of responsiveness at which a consumer is willing and able to offer a particular product at a given period of time
Manu
what is consumer
what is economics? By By By Janet Forrester By Brooke Delaney By By Brooke Delaney By Yasser Ibrahim By Brooke Delaney By Rhodes By Mldelatte By Brooke Delaney By OpenStax